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Lecture 10

Lecture 10.docx

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Carleton University
PSYC 2500
Kim O' Neil

Lecture 10 Emerging emotions - The Function of Emotions - Experiencing and Expressing Emotions - Recognizing and Using Others’Emotions - Regulating Emotions The function of emotions @ 20 mins - Emotions are useful because they help people adapt to their environments • Fear leads to avoiding danger • Happiness strengthens relationships • Disgust keeps people away from things that make them ill - These are all examples of primary/basic emotions that are interpreted in the same way universally Experiencing and expressing emotions - Basic emotions: universal and consist of subjective feeling, physiological change, and overt behavior • Interest, disgust, sadness, and fear - Stranger wariness appears around 6 months • Infant becomes visibly distressed when in the presence of a stranger • Elicit fear (because the stranger could be dangerous) • Perhaps because they understand that the primary caregiver continues to exist outside of their presence (object permanence) and wants them there/doesn’t understand why they aren’t - Self-conscious (complex or secondary) emotions such as pride, guilt, embarrassment appear later • Emerge in second year of life • Learned in response to your culture or your environment • Cultures differ in degree of emotional expression Recognizing and using others’emotions - By 4-6 months, infants can identify facial expressions associated with different emotions - Social referencing: in unfamiliar or ambiguous environment, infants look to parents for cues to interpret situation • We learn how to respond to situations and how to cope by looking to primary caregivers - During elementary school, children understand that people can have mixed feelings Regulating emotions - Regulation of emotions begins in infancy • In response to how the primary caregiver responds to child • Or develop strategies to regulate or cope with their emotions  If not, in adulthood than adults may not be able to regulate their emotions or cope with different things (e.g., can’t handle emotional situations) - For example, infants will look away when they encounter something frightening or confusing - With age, children develop even more effective strategies - Children who don’t regulate their emotions tend to have problems with peers Temperament - What is Temperament? - Hereditary and Environmental Contributions to Temperament - Stability of Temperament - Temperament and Other Aspects of Development What is temperament? - Temperament: behavioral styles that are fairly stable across situations and are biologically based • Develop into your adult personality • Develop around 3 months of age - Thomas and Chess identified 3 patterns: easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up • Easy: socialable, positive, can cope quite effectively  Majority of children are classified in this way • Difficult: negative, don’t respond well to change, active • Slow-to-warm-up: fearful of people - Five dimensions: activity level, positive affect, persistence, inhibition, and negative affect Hereditary and Environmental Contributions to Temperament - Twin studies show genetic influence: identical twins more alike in most aspects of temperament than fraternal twins • Impact of heredity depends on temperamental dimension and child’s age  E.g., inhibition, shyness, extraversion have a stronger genetic component - Early environment is associated with temperament • Infants more likely to develop intense, difficult temperaments when mothers are abrupt and lack confidence • Or, is it that the infant’s temperament is shaped by their environment, or that
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