Class Notes (838,386)
Canada (510,872)
Psychology (2,716)
PSYC 2500 (213)
Lecture 9

Lecture 9.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 2500
Kim O' Neil

Lecture 9 The road to speech - Elements of language - Perceiving speech - First steps to speech Elements of language - Language: a system that relates sounds (or gestures) to meaning - Phonology: sounds of a language • Infants are able to distinguish different language sounds at a very young age (experiment: high sucking when presented with new words or word sounds) - Semantics: study of words and their meanings - Grammar: rules used to describe the structure of a language - Pragmatics: how people use language to communicate effectively Perceiving speech - Phonemes are sounds that are the building blocks of language - Young babies can hear all possible phonemes, even those not in their language - Infants can identify individual words • After being exposed to words repeatedly, the infant will show recognition once the word is presented again (e.g. in textbook of bike) - Infant-directed speech may help children learn language • More facial expression, enunciate words, they crouch down to the infant • This can facilitate language development by overemphasizing the words and facial expressions that accompany them • Babies also prefer a high-pitched tone of voice  Therefore, you’re more likely to get the babies attention by using this tone of voice First steps to speech - 2 months: cooing (vowel-like sounds) - 6 months: babbling (speech-like sound that has no meaning) • Infants’babbling is influenced by the speech they hear - 8 to 11 months: babbling includes intonation (rising or falling pitch) - First words appear around first birthday Learning the meanings of words - Understanding Words as Symbols - Fast Mapping Meanings to Words - Individual Differences in Word Learning - Encouraging Word Learning - Beyond Words: Other Symbols Understanding words as symbols - Infants understand that words are symbols (something that stands for something else) - Gestures are symbols that children start to use around the time they begin to talk (ex: pointing, clapping) Fast mapping meanings to words - Children learn words too rapidly (naming explosion) to be starting from scratch on each one • When children go from knowing a few words to many in a very short time span • The light switch, cognitively, has been turned on • The naming explosion is a result of cognitive maturity, and not a result of the environment - Fast mapping: learning word meanings so rapidly that the child can’t be considering all possible meanings • E.g., children are taught that a tulip is a flower, will categorize the information, and then when exposed to a rose they can still identify it as a flower  Meaning that children don’t need to be exposed to every single word  Not everything is learned by direct observation or exposure - Underextensions (define a word too narrowly) and overextensions (they assign a new word to many object because they have yet to categorize information properly) are two common naming errors • Underextension: you show an infant a blue ball, they will only define that particular blue ball as a ball • Overextension: children learn a new word (e.g., dog) and will then label every moving animal as a dog Individual differences in word learning - Referential style: vocabularies consist mainly of words that name objects, persons, or actions • Referential children use language as an intellectual tool - Expressive style: vocabularies include many social phrases that are used as a single word (e.g., “go-away,” “I-want-it”) • Expressive children use language as a social tool Encouraging word learning - Speak with children frequently (not at them) • Inviting participation (e.g., asking questions, repeating the child’s statement in a grammatically correct way, reframing the child’s statement with more sophisticated vocabulary) - Name objects that are the focus of child’s attention, use speech that uses different words and is grammatically sophisticated, and respond promptly to child - Read books and ask children questions The effect of asking children questions - Asking question
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2500

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.