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Lecture 15

Lecture 15.docx

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PSYC 2500
Kim O' Neil

Lecture 15 Peers - Development of Peer Interactions - Friendship - Romantic Relationships - Groups - Popularity and Rejection Development of peer interactions - Peer interactions become more sophisticated: • Parallel play  Around 1 year of age  Children are playing alongside one another, but aren’t acknowledging or interacting with one another (they are starting to enjoy company while playing, but they aren’t sharing in it) • Associative play  15 months of age  Start to interact and acknowledge each other, but are still playing with their own toys • Cooperative play  Toward end of second year  Engage in one activity together - Make believe play: reflects cultural values and promotes cognitive development and perspective taking (via role-playing) • Around 3 years of age - Solitary play: common and normal unless children just wander aimlessly or hover • When a child is completely comfortable playing alone  This is fine, in moderation  Known as socially disinterested children (different construct than shyness) Activities that Children Do with Friends Development of peer interactions - Parents’roles include • Playmate (parent is often the first playmate- through playing with them, they learn how to interact with peers) • Social director (responsible for getting kids together) • Mediator • Coach (guiding them through social interactions) - Quality of parent-child attachment influences children’s play indirectly Friendship - Based on common interests and mutual liking in children; intimacy and loyalty are more important among adolescents, particularly girls - Friends usually alike in age, gender, and race - Children with good friends have higher self-esteem, are more likely to act prosocially, and are less likely to be lonely and depressed - Not all friendships beneficial for children and adolescents • Peer influences can be very powerful • Anti-social associates are predictor of delinquent/criminal behavior Romantic relationships - About 28% of 15-17-year-old Canadians have had intercourse at least once - 75% say sexual experimentation a result of peer pressue - Sexual activity is influenced by attitudes of parents and peers toward sex - Few teens use contraceptives due to ignorance, illusion of invulnerability, lack of motivation and lack of access - Abstinence programs not consistently effective; comprehensive sex education programs are • Because it promotes thinking, and allows children to think on their own - Roughly 15% of teens experience a period of questioning regarding their sexual orientation - About 5% of teens describe their sexual orientation as gay or lesbian - Heredity and hormones may influence sexual orientation • Can alter brain development prenatally • Hormones can also effect temperament, which may predispose children to be attracted toward different activities (e.g., a boy more interested in girl activities) - Gay and lesbian individuals continue to face challenges, but some positive social changes seen recently Groups - Two types of groups:
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