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Lecture 14

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2500
Professor
Kim O' Neil
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 14 Parenting - The Family as a System - Styles of Parenting - Parental Behavior - Influences of the Marital System - Children’s Contributions The family as a system - Families form a system of interacting elements that mutually influence each other - The first teachers of socialization (values, beliefs) - Direct and Indirect Effects • Through direct interaction with the child • Indirect: the mother and father may be feeling some hostility towards each other, which would reflect how the child is treated or the environment the child experiences - Families also part of a much larger system that includes extended family, friends, and teachers as well as institutions - Systems view exemplified by Bronfenbrenner, who saw developing child embedded in a series of complex and interactive systems Bronfenbrenner’s theory Styles of parenting - Two primary dimensions: • Warmth and responsiveness • Control  High levels of warmth and responsiveness and moderate levels of control are the best in NorthAmerican cultures  Control involves setting age-appropriate standards, consistent enforcement of rules, and good communication - High levels of warmth and responsiveness and moderate levels of control are the best - Control involves setting age-appropriate standards, consistent enforcement of rules, and good communication - Parenting Styles • Authoritarian: Rigid, inflexible, controlling • Authoritative: Loving, playing ,consistent, setting guidelines, responsive  High levels of warmth and responsiveness and moderate levels of control • Permissive: Parent is absent, doesn’t provide a lot of control, let children do what they want, love and show affection toward child, spoil the child • Uninvolved: Parent is absent, doesn’t provide a lot of control, let children do what they want, don’t really care for children and don’t want them around - In general, authoritative parenting is associated with best outcomes for children • But often difficult to classify parents under one parenting style  May act differently depending on the situation, or depending on the child they are acting toward (dependent on temperament, age, gender, if they were firstborn vs. last born) Dimensions and styles of parenting Styles of parenting - Views about the ‘proper’amount of parental warmth and control vary by culture - Chinese parents are more likely to emphasize control and NorthAmerican parents are more likely to emphasize affection - Parental styles vary not only across cultures, but within cultures, depending on parents’ socioeconomic status Parental behavior - Direct instruction: telling children what to do, when, and why - Observing: children learn from watching others and from counterimitation (learning what should not be done) • E.g., if they see older sibling being punished for something then they learn that that’s a behavior their not supposed to do - Feedback: reinforcement useful but parents often unknowingly reinforce behaviors they want to prevent (negative reinforcement trap) • Negative reinforcement trap: inadvertently reinforcing a negative behavior  Achild may learn that whining long enough or throw temper-tantrums will get them attention or get them out of doing something (e.g., cleaning their room) that they don’t want to do Influences of the Marital System - Extent of marital conflict and how it’s resolved has an obvious effect on children both directly and indirectly - Many parents work together in a coordinated and complementary fashion toward shared goals for child’s development • Parents should present a unified front (work out disagreement outside of child’s earshot) - Lack of teamwork, competition for child’s attention, and gatekeeping often cause problems • Gatekeeping: trying to do all the parenting yourself and not allowing your spouse to be involved Children’s contributions - Parents’expressions of warmth and control change as children develop - Parents behave differently depending on a child’s specific behavior and temperament • Each child in family may elicit a different parenting style from parents - Influence between parents and children is reciprocal The changing family - Impact of Divorce on Children - Blended Families - The Role of Grandparents - Children of Gay and Lesbian Parents Impact of divorce on children - Changing Families: Fewer children, more children live in poverty, adults having children later, higher divorce rate = blended families - Divorce affects children’s conduct, school achievement, adjustment, self-concept, and relationships with parents – the younger the more impact • Children of divorced families are more likely to divorce themselves when adults • Divorce more harmful when it occurs during childhood and adolescence or when children interpret events negatively (blam
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