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Psyc 2500: History, Theories, Themes, Research, Measurement, Research Designs,

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PSYC 2500
Monique Senechal

th Class 1­ Sept 6  Developmental  Psychology 2500 • Historical Overview 1. Plato& Aristotle: Pondered how knowledge was gained during childhood. Plato argued that we are born with pre-existing knowledge of the world. Aristotle argued that we learn all knowledge through experience. 2. Locke& Rousseau: Locke said that all is learned, much like Aristotle. Rousseau argued the child is born as a moral being; they have a natural good nature, much more like Plato. Stemming from Rousseau theory is the idea that if the child turns out bad, society and how they were brought up is to blame. 3. For 2000 years we’ve been debating the issue, and we continue to debate it today. 4. Industrial Revolution& Reformers: Machines began to replace human work in the industrial revolution. The reformers pushed to change the law to say kids could not work and had to go to school, in response to the industrial revolution. The reformers needed evidence to prove this was a good idea; thus we moved from philosophers guessing about development to scientists trying to study development. 5. Darwin Began writing baby diaries. He recorded all that the children did, and why they did it. 6. Healthy development was promoted more and more, which created a demand for studying children. Studying how to teach them best, how to help them develop • Theories 1. Theory: organized set of ideas designed to explain and make predictions. 2. Biological Forces Perspective: Plato’s perspective. We are born with a system and experience is only necessary to activate this system. We have a biological system that just needs to mature. I. Ethological theory: Interested in biological forces. This theory says we can compare other species to ourselves. We can, for example, observe behaviors in other species and apply them to ourselves. II. A major force in this field is KONRAD LORENZE. He was an Austrian man who loved animals. He did observations of birds and how important it was for animals to recognize other members of the species. He found that chicks could recognize their mother within hours of hatching. He was curious if there was a pre-existing structure in the brain that caused this. He developed the notions of: a) Imprinting: Idea that babies with form a strong bond the first thing seen in the first few hours. b) Critical period: The bonding can only occur within a certain period (a few hours after birth). 3. Psychodynamic Perspective: FREUD argues that there are stages, and at each stage we experience conflicts we must resolve to move to the next level. I. Freud’s Psychosexual theory: There are 3 components of personality: id, ego, and superego. a) Id: our subconscious desires b) Ego: conscious interactions with the world; controls the impulses Id c) Superego: moral self; our conscious. He also had 5 stages of childhood which had to be conquered in order to reach adulthood. II. Erikson’s Psychosocial theory: Sexuality is not a driving force. We have basic instincts as well as social influences. Argued that stages went on throughout the life. He has 8 stages in his theory. 4. The Learning Perspective: there are two types of learning. I. Classical conditioning: Pavlov’s dog salivation study. II. Operant Conditioning: Skinner; reward/ punishment system. Reinforcing behavior increases the likelihood it will occur again, and punishing behavior will decrease the likelihood it will occur again. III. Observational Learning: Albert Bandura argued that the behavior does not
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