Harder Scale of selfesteem has five levels of selfperception that are measured:
1. Scholastic competence: becomes importance once children enter school, and sometimes children’s self
esteem levels drop when the compare themselves to other
2. Athletic competence: the main source of selfesteem for children who do not rank as high in scholastic
3. Social acceptance
4. Behavioural conduct
5. Physical appearance
Children have two choices: they have to read 2 sentences and have to decide which of the statements is the most true
for them. The scale is on a 4point level (“really true for me”, “sort of true for me”). Sentence examples may include
things such as “some kinds have trouble figuring out the answers in school” BUT “other kids almost always can figure
out the answers” and “some kids feel they are very good at school work” BUT “other kids worry about whether they can
do the school work assigned to them”. Profiles are then constructed based around how the children responded to the
statement questions. The total score is usually the total number that appears on the scale.
Studies have been conducted where researchers will observe the children and then compare their behaviours and
actions to how children reply to the statements to see if there is a correlation, and they have found that there is a
Selfesteem is not a single trait, but is a construct of different variables/traits.
A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It
was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but
the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged
$2000 for a small dose of the drug.
The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together
about $1000, which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper
or let him pay later. But the druggist said, “No, I discovered the drug and I’m going to make money from it.” So Heinz
got desperate and broke into the man’s store and stole the drug for his wife.
Should Heinz have stolen the drug for his wife? Why or why not? Explain your answer.
There are 6 stages of moral reasoning (Kohlberg): 1. Obedience – should not steal the medicine because he could consequently be put in prison for stealing
2. Selfinterest – should steal the medicine because the druggist is paying $200 for a medicine that he is
selling for $2000 and is doing this to make money
3. Conformity – should steal the medicine because his wife expects him to be a good husband (sees it as
his duty to supply for her and make her better) or should not steal the medicine because it is against the law
4. Law and Order – should not steal the medicine because it is against the law and laws are to protect
people and keep order
5. Human Rights – should steal the medicine because everyone has the right to choose life over the law or
he should not steal the medicine because the druggist has the right to compensation
6. Universal Reasoning – should steal the medicine because it is a human life and that is more important
than monetary items
Beginnings of selfcontrol: children learn to soothe themselves as babies by using behaviour such as sucking their
thumb, walking, etc. By around age 2, children start internalizin