The road to speech: elements of language, definition of language- a system that relates sound or gestures to meaning, how language differs from simple communication. It has arbitrary units and is therefore symbolic. It shows displacement one can communicate about events distant in time and space, not just here and now. Innate and environmental factors: perceptual reorganization to match the native language, specializing in one language comes at the cost o making it more difficult to recognize sounds in other languages. Identifying words: when 7/8 month olds hear a word repeatedly in different sentences they later pay more attention to this word than to words thay haent heard previously. Infants pay more attentions to content words (nouns, verbs) tan to function words: able to distinguish words in spoken conversations because of use of syllables pay more attention to stressed syllables. Intonation rising a falling pitch patterns in speech: milestones of language, 2.