PSYC 2600 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Black Tie, A Generation, Individualism

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16 Nov 2017
Department
Course
Class 17 (Culture)
Culture and social norms
Culture permeates everything we do on a daily basis. It refers to customs, religions, values,
and time periods.
o A lot of cultural change between time periods.
Different cultures have different social norms.
o Cultural norms are based on social class, socioeconomic status SES.
o If you go to a local pub vs a black tie restaurant: same area but different norms.
Cultures change over time. There are significant differences amongst generations and even
birth cohorts (people born at the same time as you).
o A generation is everyone born within an approximate 20 year period.
How cultures shape people
Cross cultural differences: average variations based on country or world regions.
o May arise from geography. Environmental characteristics have an impact.
o People had to rely on different strategies in order to survive.
Children learn through socialization.
o Learning to become a mature adult member of their own society.
Parenting is different across cultures.
o In America, children are taught to make choices and have opinions.
o In collectivist cultures, parents make decisions for their children (Japan).
Cultural products are a way to look at cultural differences. They are anything that a culture
produces (ads, TV shows, song lyrics).
o Facebook is very Americanized, the format is about presenting the self.
Mutual constitution
Culture and individuals are inseparable. Individuals help produce, modify, and change
culture.
o They are both shaped by each other.
Cultural change may happen through mutual constitution.
o Do individuals change culture, or does the culture change the individual?
o This happens at the same time.
o Things gradually catch momentum and get turned into a cultural product.
Everything is interrelated. Cultural values inform institutions and products, daily life and the
self, which in turn inform each other.
Cultural differences
Individualism is what we are used to, favours the needs of the self over those of others.
o In the individualist culture, there are people around you, but they are distinct from
the self, they are separate from you as the individual.
Collectivism favours the needs of others and the society first.
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o In the collectivist culture, these people are part of the self. You are not completely
separate from those around you.
Idiidualis is e foused, ad olletiis is e.
Internal and external attributions
Ways of describing events that have happened.
Individualist cultures talk about internal attributions.
o An explanation focusing on personal factors.
Collectivist cultures focus more on external attributions.
o An explanation focusing on situational factors.
Perceptions of others
In collectivist cultures, context is emphasized. In individualist cultures, the lone person
matters more.
Generational
Cultural mindset and culture changes over time.
We have gotten very used to the idea of how we consider something first.
o Reflected in some of our cultural products. Songs are more individualistic, and very
e foused.
Cultural differences in individualism and collectivism
Self views
Individualistic cultures are more self-enhancing, unrealistic positive views of the self.
o People from these cultures have higher self-esteem. We are socialized to view
ourselves this way.
o It’s a distit feature that we see on this side of the world.
Collectivist cultures are more likely to be honest about themselves. Less deliberate self-
enhancement.
Emigrating from one country to another can effect self-esteem scores.
o Japanese immigrants who had been in Canada longer had higher self-esteem.
Cultural influences grow as children are socialized.
o The effect that the culture you grow up in has on you.
In the US, African Americans have highest self-esteem, then whites, Latinos, and Asian
Americans.
Collective self esteem: based on group membership.
o Suggests more disinterest in self-enhancement in African Americans.
People with lower SES are more collectivistic than those with higher SES, and tend to report
lower levels of self-esteem and narcissism.
o These people are more likely to ork together, they a’t afford to e as idiidualisti
as others.
o This is a culture in itself, it has different norms and values.
In more recent generations, we are big on the idea of encouraging higher self views. The
increase in self-esteem that we have seen in young people is possibly related to that.
Self vs others
Ads illustrate cross-cultural differences in views of the self and others.
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Document Summary

Culture and social norms: culture permeates everything we do on a daily basis. It refers to customs, religions, values, and time periods: a lot of cultural change between time periods, different cultures have different social norms, cultural norms are based on social class, socioeconomic status ses. If you go to a local pub vs a black tie restaurant: same area but different norms: cultures change over time. There are significant differences amongst generations and even birth cohorts (people born at the same time as you): a generation is everyone born within an approximate 20 year period. How cultures shape people: cross cultural differences: average variations based on country or world regions, may arise from geography. Environmental characteristics have an impact: people had to rely on different strategies in order to survive, children learn through socialization, learning to become a mature adult member of their own society, parenting is different across cultures.

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