Class Notes (786,419)
Canada (482,179)
Psychology (2,574)
PSYC 2600 (158)
Lecture 4

Lecture 4.docx
Premium

5 Pages
52 Views
Unlock Document

School
Carleton University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2600
Professor
Elizabeth Nisbet
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 4 - Ch. 4 is not required reading (I will be covering this material with today’s lecture) Theoretical Issues in Trait Psychology - What does it mean to say someone has high or low levels of a trait? - Does it hold for all times and across all situations? - Can we make accurate predictions based on trait scores? Meaningful Differences Between Individuals - Traits psychology = differential psychology - People differ in amount of trait possessed - Trait psychologists propose that infinite varieties of personalities are created from combinations of a few primary traits - Create a personality based on a combination of different levels of core traits Meaningful Differences… - We can use these to understand and predict behaviour over time and across situations - Atrait might be consistent over time, but manifestation might change substantially Consistency Over Time - How can there be consistency in a trait if it is known to change with age (e.g., impulsivity)? Focus on the rank order differences between people - Rank order: difference between people in a trait • Ex: at the top of aggressiveness trait in your class as a kid, as you grow up, the aggressive trait decreases in everyone, but you’ll still be at the top of everyone, as your rank order, where you stand, doesn’t change ConsistencyAcross Situations… - Originally, assumed cross-situation consistency - Hartshorne and May (1928): Low cross-situation consistency in honesty, helpfulness, self-control • Study: kids acted different at summer camp than they did at school - If situations mainly control how people behave, then the existence or relevance of traits is questionable ConsistencyAcross Situations - Mischel (1968): abandon efforts to explain behavior with traits, and focus on situations - Situationism: If behavior varies across situations, then situational differences (not traits) determine behavior - Debate led to two lasting changes: Focus on Person-Situation Interaction and Practice of Aggregation - Look at how personality and situations interact - Measure behavior in many different situations and take the average Person-Situation Interaction - Two possible explanations for behavior: • Behavior is a function of personality traits B = f (P) • Behavior is a function of situation B = f (S) - Integration: Personality and situation interact to produce behavior - B = f (P* S) - Differences between people make a difference only under certain circumstances Person-Situation Interaction - Situational specificity: Certain situations can provoke behaviour that is out of character for an individual - Strong situation: Situations in which most people react in a similar way (e.g., funerals, weddings) • When situations are weak or ambiguous, personality has its strongest influence (example?........) - Three additional ways in which personality and situation interact to produce behavior - If there’s the right situational conditions, then a person’s trait characteristics will come out • Some situations have ‘expected’behavior, so people may have to stifle their personality  Ex: extraverts having to be quiet in the library Person-Situation Interaction - Selection: Tendency to choose or select situations in which one finds oneself, as a function of personality - We select the situations in which we will spend our time • Need for achievement à time on task or at work • Extraverts à team activities • Introverts à solitary recreation (i.e. jogging) - Personality influences or shifts how we spend our time Person-Situation Interaction - Evocation: Certain personality
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2600

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.

Submit