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Lecture 7

Lecture 7.docx

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PSYC 2600
Elizabeth Nisbet

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Lecture 7 PhysiologicalApproaches to Personality - Modern Physiological researchers • Focus on distinct physiological systems (cardiovascular activity, electrodermal activity, brain electrical activity, immune system indicators, cortisol, etc.) • Examining whether physiological differences are related to personality differences ElectrodermalActivity (EDA): Skin Conductance - Most obtained by electrodes or sensors placed on the skin surface - Advantage: Noninvasive, no discomfort - Disadvantage: Movement constrained - EDAdue to increased sweat with arousal, skin conductance of electricity increases - EDAin the absence of external stimuli—associated with anxiety and neuroticism Cardiovascular activity - Blood pressure—measure of, e.g., stress reactivity - Heart rate—increases with anxiety, fear, arousal, cognitive effort - Cardiac reactivity— when performing task such as backward serial subtraction • Associated with TypeA personality—impatience, competitiveness, hostility • Cardiac reactivity (and TypeA) associated with coronary heart disease Stress and Coping - Student Stress Study – Carleton U., 2000-2001 • Dr. HymieAnisman – Stress and Pathology Lab  Different levels of stress based on cortisol levels • Dr. Kim Matheson – Social Diversity Lab - Coping Centre for Stress, Coping and Well-Being • Cotton balls, saliva samples, and stress Brain Activity - Brain imaging techniques—map structure and function of brain • Positron emission tomography (PET) • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) What is fMRI? - Assesses brain function by sampling blood flow over time • Might ask to think about certain things, or show some pictures to assess the blood flow - Produces “movies” of participant’s brain activity while the participant is engaging in a specific task - Localizes the regions of the brain which are engaged in a task • When people are excluded, the area in the brain that lights up is the one that lights up for physical pain Neuromarketing - Movie • Advertisers are developing a complex understanding of how consumers are influenced • What two types of people are highlighted in the video? How was physiology used to determine the differences between the two types of people?  People who like ‘uncool’things, and people who like ‘cool’things  People who have brains who react positively to cool things  Kind of reach out to it. Want it  People who have brains who react negatively towards cool things  They react to the uncool, and try to avoid it. Don’t want it  Show pictures and asked to think if they find them cool or uncool • Following from this research, we can see how Personality (and the underlying physiology) is being used in the real world. Physiologically Based Theories of Personality - Extraversion-Introversion - Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment - Sensation Seeking - Morningness-Eveningness - BrainAsymmetry and Affective Style Extraversion-Introversion - When given a choice, extraverts prefer higher levels of stimulation than introverts • They are very sociable and confident.Assertive and adventure seeking. - Geen (1984): Introverts and extraverts choose different levels of stimulation, but equivalent in arousal under chosen stimulation
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