Class Notes (837,284)
Canada (510,219)
Psychology (2,710)
PSYC 2600 (183)
Lecture 2

Lecture 2.docx
Premium

10 Pages
108 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2600
Professor
Elizabeth Nisbet
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 2 Theory & Hypotheses (psychology terminology) - Research questions are translated into testable hypotheses - Atheory is a set of statements designed to explain how the world works - Ahypothesis is a statement of what you think should happened in your experiment Sources of Personality Data - Self-Report Data (S-Data) - Observer-Report Data (O-Data) - Test-Data (T-Data) - Life-Outcome Data (L-Data) Self-Report Data (S-Data) - Information provided by a person, such as through a survey or interview - Individuals have access to a wealth of information about themselves that is inaccessible to anyone else - Most commonly used in personality research • It is not expensive and it is effective • Best source because it is personal • You can get a lot of information from asking people • It can be anonymous Self-Report Data - S-data personality tests • Unstructured items—open-ended • Structured items—response options provided (ex: scales) - Limitations of S-data • People may not respond honestly • People may lack accurate self-knowledge Experience Sampling - S-data. But creating something similar to L-data. SIMILAR TO S-DATA, BUT IT IS OVERTIME!! • For example, pager studies  Ask you in the moment how you are feeling. Can get a picture as to what your emotions were like on a day to day basis. How often you felt good and how often you felt bad. Sampling methodology.  Measuring experiences repeatedly  Expensive. Hard to do. - Get people to report feelings as they occur Observer-Report Data (O-Data) - Information provided by someone else about another person - Key features of O-data • Provide access to information not attainable through other sources  Can see how people with certain traits react/act in everyday situations • Multiple observers can be used to assess a person  If multiple people rate the person the same, it is more accurate they are that type of person Observer-Report Data - Selecting observers • Professional personality assessors • People who actually know the target person  Often in better position to observe target’s natural behaviors than professional personality assessors  Allows for assessment of multiple social personalities  Because of relationship to target, however, observer may be biased Observer-Report Data - Naturalistic vs.Artificial Observation • Naturalistic observation: Observers witness and record events that occur in the normal course of lives of the participants (realism but no control) • Artificial observation: Occurs in artificial settings or situations (control but sacrifice realism) Test-Data (T-Data) - Information provided by standardized tests or testing situations - Idea is to see if different people behave differently in identical situations - Can include physiological tests, projective techniques, mechanical recording devices - Get data of how people respond differently to the same situation Test-Data - Situation designed to elicit behaviors that serve as indicators of personality - Elicited behavior “scored” without reliance on inference - Objective. Not biased (mechanical) - Can combine with self report or observer report Test-Data - Limitations • Participants might try to guess what trait is being measured and then alter their behavior to create certain impressions • Difficult to know if participants define testing situation as intended by experimenter • Researcher might influence how participants behave Test-Data - Mechanical recording devices, e.g., “Actometer” used to assess children’s activity • Strengths  Not hampered by biases of human observer  May be used in naturalistic settings • Disadvantage  Few personality dispositions lend themselves to mechanical assessment Test-Data - Physiological data • Includes information about a person’s level of arousal, reactivity to stimuli—potential indicators of personality • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) • Key benefit is that it is difficult to fake responses • Disadvantages  Often used in artificial laboratory setting  Accuracy of recording hinges on whether participant perceives situation as experimenter intended • Look at images. See how people react differently to positive vs. Negative stimuli Test Data - Projective Techniques • Person presented with ambiguous stimuli and asked to describe what she sees; assumption is that person “projects” personality onto ambiguous stimuli • Strengths: May provide useful means for gathering information about wishes, desires, fantasies that a person is not aware of and could not report • Disadvantages: Difficult to score, uncertain validity, and reliability Life-Outcome Data (L-Data) - Information that can be gleaned from events, activities, and outcomes in a person’s life that is available for public scrutiny—e.g., marriage, speeding tickets L-Data - Benefits • Not necessarily limited to self-report – can use historical documents • An important source of “real-life” data - Limitations • Record may be partial, difficult to obtain Issues in PersonalityAssessment - Links among different data sources - Fallibility of personality measurement • All sources of data have limitations • Results that replicate through “triangulation” are most powerful  Same result from a number of data sources Evaluating Personality Measures - Reliability - Validity - Generalizability Reliability - Degree to which measure represents “true” level of trait being measured - Types of reliability • Test-retest reliability: scores at one administration positively correlate with scores at second administration  Temporal stability  Scoring the same on the same test taken at different times • Inter-rater reliability: applicable only to observer-based personality
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2600

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit