Class Notes (811,160)
Canada (494,530)
Psychology (2,648)
PSYC 2600 (168)
Lecture 12

Lecture 12.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Carleton University
PSYC 2600
Elizabeth Nisbet

Lecture 12 (ch.12) CognitiveApproaches to Personality - Cognition: awareness and thinking; specific mental acts such as perceiving, interpreting, remembering, believing, anticipating - Differences in how people process information - The way people perceive information is different depending on their personality Cognitive-Experiential Domain - Three levels of cognition of interest to personality psychologists 1. Perception: Process of imposing order on information received by our sense organs 2. Interpretation: Process of making sense of, or explaining, events in the world 3. Beliefs and desires: Standards and goals people develop for evaluating themselves and others - Fourth cognitive domain of interest: Intelligence Personality Revealed Through Perception - Field Dependence-Independence - Pain Tolerance and Sensation Reducing-Augmenting Field Dependence-Independence - Field independent (relative to field dependent) people have the ability to focus on details despite the clutter of background information - Measures used to assess field-dependence • Rod and Frame Test (RFT) • Embedded Figures Test (EFT) - Stable individual difference - Whether people can ignore background - Focus on environmental cues = dependent - Can ignore outside information = independent Field Dependence-Independence - Differences relate to life choices (education, interpersonal relations) - Current research on field dependence-independence • Field independent people are better able to screen out distracting information and focus on a task • Field-independent students learn more effectively than field dependent students in hypermedia-based instructional environment - Dependent – social science (oriented towards others) - Independent – math (more detached) - Bomb disposal expert – independent – have to focus - Anti-terrorism investigator – dependent – have to pay attention to everything Pain Tolerance and Sensation Reducing-Augmenting - Aneseth Petrie’s reducer-augmenter theory of pain tolerance • People with low pain tolerance have a nervous system that is amplified or augmented subjective impact of sensory input • People with high pain tolerance have a nervous system that is dampened or reduced effects of sensory information Pain Tolerance and Sensation Reducing-Augmenting - Reducers seek strong stimulation, perhaps in order to compensate for lower sensory reactivity - Reducers may use substances (nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, other drugs) to artificially “lift” their arousal level - Augmented – more loud noise, feel more pain, want to reduce this - Reducers – not as loud, not as painful, so want more stimulation / arousal Personality Revealed Through Interpretation - Learned Helplessness: Accepting a painful fate without attempting to remove yourself from the unpleasant situation Learned Helplessness - Study has been replicated with human subjects - This led psychologists to study what was going on in the minds of people who underwent learned helplessness conditioning - Resulted in a new model- reformulated learned helplessness: explanatory style Recall two events… 1. Recall a positive event (something “good” that has happened to you) • Answer the question – “Why did this happen?” 2. Recall a negative event (something unfortunate or unpleasant that has happened to you) • Answer the question – “Why did this happen?” Attribution Theory - Events (called “outcomes”) happen to us all of the time (some unpleasant, some good, some trivial) - For events that are important (good or bad) we usually engage in a search for causality (often sub-conscious) - Locus of control describes person’s interpretation of responsibility for events - External LOC vs. Internal LOC Attribution Theory - Explanatory style: Tendency that some people have to use certain attributional categories when explaining causes of events - Positive event – what was the cause of it? Versus negative event – what was the cause of it? • People attribute blame differently depending on positive or negative events (stable individual difference) - Three broad categories of attributions • External or internal  When we do something good, we think it’s us (internal), when we do something bad, we think it’s not our fault (external)  Internal – attributing the cause to yourself  External – attributing the cause to luck, fate, or someone else • Stable or unstable  One-time thing vs. something that can change
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2600

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.