Lecture 2 Thursday, January 6, 2011
o WebCT- evaluation form for essay
o APA format—detailed instructions, updated to 6 edition
o Not as nitpicky as APA people would be
o Write in formal style, no “I”
o Read some journal articles to see the style
o Half the marks are around editing (very important)
o Picking a topic—table of contents, it will be considered a valid personality
topic if it’s in the textbook. (Ex. Self-esteem, motives, traits, etc.)
The part of the textbook: terminology, names, etc.
Check library website—Psych Info, search more information for
Taking this idea, demonstrating that you understand the topic. In
the other half, you’re taking this to apply to a real-world situation
(traits and relationship satisfaction—relate it to your relationship,
or your neighbours, etc.)
o Writing an outline—flow from start to finish
After writing the paper, turn it into an outline to check the
o Intro: what you’re talking about, where it’s going (the conclusion)
o Don’t do quotations
o First names are okay, could give aliases if you want
o *This is the one case where you can say “I” (if you’re using yourself as
o Can divide your paper differently from 50/50. Can weave back and forth
o Don’t insert the “I” as narrator—only when directly discussing your
- Different forces work to shape who we are as a person
- Forces work on all of us (human nature level)—a lot of this
- Also notice that groups are similar, different from other groups
o Low self-esteem vs. high self-esteem
o University students vs. non-university students
o How do we account for behaviour when there are groups? How do we
come up with coherent idea?
- Forces that influenced only individuals
o Particular, unique experience shapes unique personality
o Difficult for figuring out who we are.
- No comprehensive way of putting all this research together
- *This definition directly from the textbook. Good.
- Traits: focus of personality research
o Allow us to make comparisons
o High in neuroticism, etc. - Mechanisms: processes. The way we process information.
o We don’t all process information in the same way.
o Inputs (taking in information) and decision rules and outputs
(consequences, thoughts, emotions, behaviours)
- Might engage in different social norms in different situations, but underlying
personality is still the same.
- There are interactions between internal and external
- But we need a theory to account for all the different forces and factors, show the
- Maybe traits influence the way we process information, but it could be vice versa.
o Or back and forth, or they could be influenced by something else, etc.
o We might argue that the mechanisms are still so important that we’ll
separate them out, even if this is true.
- Consistent patterns of behaviour from really young (some research of individual
differences starts at 3 months of age)
- As responding to the environment, we change it, t