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Lecture 6

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PSYC 2600
Chris Motz

Lecture 6: Lecture 3 notes Thursday, January 20, 2011 - Five factor model, five factor theory - Statistical Approach slide (from last class) - Lexical and theoretical approach to figure out how many traits there are - Lexical approach- dictionary- 20,000 different trait terms o Narrow down to the core traits - Statistical starts off with terms (lexical), then collect data (look for patterns of covariation- factor analysis- correlations in data) o Factor analysis shows the traits that are strongly related (synonymous) - We don’t really do theoretical approach anymore—we’re more in statistical - Basic traits o Statistical approach to identify basic traits o Factor analysis lumps things together- just different components of larger trait group - Taxonomies o Eysenck- boiled down 20,000 trait terms to three main traits (everything else is subcomponent) o Cattell- narrowed down 20,000 to 16 clusters/groupings (one cluster would be nice, warm, kind, polite, etc.)  Each of the 16 would have a fair amount of variation within it o Costa and McCrae- 5 Factor Model  We call it a model because we’re modelling a solution- how to group together all the different correlations  Eysenck and Cattell modelled them with 3 and 16 factors, respectively  Costa and McCrae weren’t the first to come up with 5 Factor model  They were the first to study on a human nature level, universally— across 120 countries  (Eysenck and Cattell also did research supporting their clustering) - Factor analysis reveals what you want to get out of the process o If you choose to stop at 100, you can do that. If you choose to stop at 50 traits, you get out of it what you want o That’s how you can have research supporting 3/16/5 factors - Circumplex- different way to think about the traits o Two primary traits- dimensions o Everything else goes somewhere between the two dimensions - Openness to experience (fifth factor) is sometimes referred to as intellect, depending upon the cultural and linguistic group o To some extent, the labelling of each group is arbitrary o We see generally the same idea, but it works a bit better for one label or the other - Questionnaire o On the whole, I feel I am... o 4 o 7 o 4 o 3 o 5 - OCEAN- Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism - Each trait is unidimensional, bipolar construct o Ex. Height- single dimension, bipolar (have two extreme ends—tall vs. short) - In bold, label of one end of the spectrum (what we usually go with)—other terms are the other end of the spectrum - Neuroticism- sometimes referred to as emotional instability (although it’s more than that) - Big Five personality traits- Costa and McCrae embed the FFM in the basic tendencies part of the Five Factor Theory - 5 factors- 6 facets- subtraits - Neuroticism vs. emotional stability o Anxiety o Angry hostility o Depression o Self-consciousness o Impulsive o Vulnerability - *room for individual variation within each of the Big Five because one can vary across the 6 facets (high on some, low on others)—makes room for the individual variation (uniqueness of the individual experience) - **Need to know the six facets o Paint a picture of someone who’s either high or low on all of these together o Ex. Uncle Bob/family member you know (exaggerate their characteristics) - Extraversion vs. introversion o Gregariousness o Assertiveness o Activity o Excitement-seeking o Positive emotions o Warmth - Openness vs. closedness to experience o Ideas o Fantasy o Aesthetics o Actions o Feelings (excitable) o Values (unconventional) - Agreeableness vs. antagonism o Trust o Altruism o Modesty o Straightforwardness o Compliance o Tender-mindedness - Conscientiousness vs. lack of direction o Competence (efficient) o Order o Dutifulness o Achievement striving o Self-discipline o Deliberation (not impulsive)  *Impulsivity of someone who lacks conscientiousness is one of the most identifying features - Six facets loading onto the Five traits o Each of 6 facets is cluster of traits o Each facet loads on larger factor - Can’t make value judgements about someone who possesses a certain trait—not a bad person if you’re introverted vs. extroverted. But can lead to some troublesome life outcomes, particularly if you’re at an extreme. - In a scatter plot, can map out individual scores on two variables (satisfaction with life vs. perceived stress) o Same essential idea in factor analysis o Graph out loadings of any facet onto two larger factors o Loadings are essentially a correlation (positive/negative) o Instead of drawing scatter plot with just one quadrant, we’re drawing all four quadrants o Two main factors (extroversion vs. introversion, conscientiousness vs. lack of direction) o These are two of the Big Five (can choose any two) o Can take a look at individual facets and their connection to any two of the Big Five o Can have score on facet that correlates with just one of the Big Five (Pure facet) o Or can load onto more than one (Blended facet)  Being frank loads onto extroversion at a 0.71 and loads onto conscientiousness at -0.02- marker/pure facet (essentially at 0 point for conscientiousness)  Energetic would be blended facet- loads onto both conscientiousness (0.40) and extroversion (0.52) Extroversion Frank Energetic Lack of direction Conscientiousness Introversion - Scores on any one of the Big Five
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