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Lecture 13

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Carleton University
PSYC 2600
Chris Motz

Lecture 13 Tuesday, February 15, 2011 - we will finish midterm material today - Psychoanalytic Domain - We’ll move on into the modern research/theory (which doesn’t look at all like Freud’s early stuff) - The Unconscious o Contemporary Views  Cognitive unconscious view • How we can have information on our unconscious • Memory, cognitive processes, etc. are going on outside our conscious awareness—automatic processing (without our awareness) • Doesn’t necessarily influence our behaviour • This is NOT repression—it’s just happening without us needing to focus  Motivated unconscious view • Behaviour is influenced by unconscious processes • Psychic determinism (subliminal messages causing you to consciously seek something) - Ego Psychology o More modern, neo-analytical movement o Less focus on id (aggressive, destructive force) o More focus on ego (based in reality) o Ego, self, mind, etc. o Involved in mastering the environment o Many tasks: integrate urges, desires, drives with reality o So we can achieve our goals, achieve sense of self and identity o One of main functions: self-identity o Erikson: psychosocial stages, 8 in total (unlike Freud’s psychosexual stages in early years, up to adolescence) o Development happens across lifespan o **Successful interaction with others, focusing on attachment—stems from this movement away from id-based psychologist and toward ego-based - Textbook o Erikson’s eight stages of development o Karen Horney and a feminist interpretation of psychoanalysis (strong rebuke against Freud’s theories) *huge development in neo-analytic movement o Emphasis on self and the notion of narcissism - In class: o Neo-analytic psychology o Object relations theory o Will transition into idea of today’s research - Freud had a focus on sexuality, but we’ve moved away from that o We focus on social relations and their origins in childhood o Childhood years are formative—give templates for how we will engage in social interactions (the style of interaction) - Neo-analytic movement: object relations theory o Less focus on the id o Shifting away from internal wishes and desires o More relationships with significant other  Children: caregiver (typically the mother) o That significant other and the relationship we have with him/her becomes internalized—develop internal idea with that other, develop relationship with him/her o Internalizing process: creates an unconscious (sometimes conscious) mental representation of the person o This allows child to have relationship with internalised object—mom doesn’t need to be present for us to have a conversation with her o How the child internalises the nature of this relationship forms the fundamentals for how the child will come to view others in subsequent relationships - Attachment theory o Attachment is one way of thinking about our early social relations o A lot of our attachment ideas stem from Bowlby and Ainsworth o There are other theories of attachment out there, this is just one o Bowlby’s earlier work: three types of attachment (more later)  Securely attached  Avoidantly attached  Ambivalently attached (anxious/ambivalent) o **Worked with infants o **We can separate people into separate groups, but all of us can be a blend of each of the three. Most common pattern is that we’ll be predominantly of one of the three, but we can have some characteristics of the other two. o Bowlby- more theoretical o Ainsworth- tried to apply this to infants (experimental design) o Strange situation- bring mom and child to lab (we have control over situation, it’s unfamiliar to child)  Chairs and toys in room, often one-way glass to observe  Strange situation for child—how does child behave?  Could manipulate—mom sits there, leaves, return, strange person enters while mom is there/not, etc. o Securely attached infant uses mom as the home base—might be hugging mom in strange situation—gives them some security. Will develop the confidence to go and play with some toys relatively quickly.  Mom leaves—some securely attached infants may trust that she’ll return, some will cry  When she returns—give her a big hug and go back to playing  **Easily soothable o Avoidantly attached child (avoidant/aloof)  Don’t necessarily use mom as home base  If mom leaves, might not be concerned  When she returns, unconcerned  Don’t have that connection  Potentially avoids mom when she returns o Ambivalent child have anxiety, love/hate relationship  Anxious to leave the mother  When mother leaves—really see the anxiety/distress  Cries with extra level of distress, more than securely attached  When mom returns—relieved, will cling to mom (love) but at the same time, will be angry that she left (hate—start hitting) - Attachment to mom during first 6 months is crucial for all primates (Harlowe’s research with monkeys), particularly true for humans - Relationships with parents—working models for adult relationships o The nature of this social relationship becomes internalized the form of unconscious expectations about relationships o Influences our adult attachment style o Romantic love, relationships o Three types of relationships  Secure • Comfortable getting close and depending on others • Can give up control • Have some level of independence, getting close  Avoidant • Do not feel comfortable getting close • Feel uncomfortable depending on others (expressing some need)  Anxious-ambivalent • Feel that strong desire to get close combined with strong fear of abandonment/rejection • Love-hate relationship • A lot of anxiety in abandonment/rejection o We can use attachment style to understand individual differences - Relationship satisfaction o Why am I unsatisfied? By Stackert and Bursik o Relationship-specific irrational beliefs o Argue that interpersonal interaction patterns are shaped by internal working models of relationship style—they influence how we interact with partners, and our beliefs around the style of interacting o We may grow up with dysfunctional family dynamics—this becomes the
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