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Lecture 16

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PSYC 2600
Chris Motz

Lecture 16 Thursday, March 10, 2011 - Finish last week’s notes, on to material from this week - Chapter 13 is this week’s material o Emotions - Chapter 14 o The self (very much in self-concept component, which is part of characteristic adaptations) - Finishing last week’s notes o Attribution theory and motivation- study o Something as simple as coming in for one time at beginning of first year of university enhances performance o This only works for low achievers o We have ceiling effort for high achievers o Positive and lasting effect on grades o Causal ascriptions in video  Key: make sure that for either success or failure, participant engages in attribution that motivates them for positive behaviour for future • Being a genius- not healthy—somewhat stable, somewhat uncontrollable—won’t contribute to future studying behaviour • Want internal, unstable, controllable (effort) • Want to feel that you have control over what went wrong, so you know how not to repeat it o Personality revealed through goals  Focus is on understanding intention  What the person wants to happen, what they want to happen in their life  Different perspective  Some research focuses on goals for now, life goals  Can look at goals at varying levels  We differ in our goals, these are part of our personality o Personal Projects Analysis (Little)  Small subfield in personality research  Big shift  Looking more at active side  Personality organizes our day to day activities, influences the goals we will have on our to-do list o Cantor focuses more on larger goals (life tasks)  Somewhat culturally mandated  Generally shared as part of culture  Ex. Achieving adulthood • Some cultures: official ceremony • Some cultures: less official • Some cultures: hang onto children a little longer  Changes with culture, also changes with time • Used to be very young (apprentices/marriage at age 10) • Hang onto adolescence longer and longer (Gr. 12, risk of university) • Post-pone marriage age • Kids in recent times stay at home until 30, 35  Cantor talks about us having strategies that direct our behaviour in consistent ways to solve problems o 1) Social constraint: overcome problem (figure out what to do) by following others, letting others take the lead  Can be for large life tasks, smaller situations (how to act in house party) o 2) Defensive pessimism: pessimistic, expect worst to happen, prepare for it—if anything other than the worst happens, that’s great. Set low expectations. o 3) Outcome focus: we’ll constantly bring the conversation back to that life task, seek reassurance. Ex. Working on project at work, will talk about that project to all colleagues, in every situation. o Little—personal projects  Projects on short-term and long-term  Survey university students: get everything on to-do list (going grocery shopping, working on paper, studying for exams, as well as picking major, figuring out courses for next year, what to do for career, finding significant other, finding other geeks to be friends with, getting laid)  To understand how this reveals personality, put them through personal projects analysis (PPA)  Motives, motivations  Write down what’s on personal projects list • Finish catching up on lectures • Prepare dance choreography • Take shower, prepare for formal • Get started on essays • Catch up with readings • Apply to university, write personal statement • Make time for friends—lunch, breakfast • Hang out with Nora • Get a summer job, or take a summer course • Singing lessons • Get back to art whenever there’s time  Full version on Brian Little’s website  For each task, rank importance, difficulty, visibility, support, outcome, progress, stress (1-10)  Teacher’s list Importance Difficulty Visibility Support Outcome Progress Stress Grading 7 4 8 1 9 0 3 Website Conference Call Mom 5 1 2 0 10 0 1 Brush cats 0 Finalize 9 8 9 0 9 7 7 exams o Something like calling mom is relatively important, but quite easy, not so stressful, doesn’t bother him that he has no support, confidence in successful outcome o But finalizing exams is stressful, important, visible, difficult—no kidding that this would be the most stressful thing o Two things on personal projects list—one is easy, low stress—the other is hard, high stress  Procrastination is
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