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Lecture 22.doc

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PSYC 2600
Chris Motz

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Lecture 22 Thursday, March 31, 2011 - We’ll finish Chapter 18, then move on to Chapter 19 (no required readings—it’s on personality disorders) - **Chapter 20 is good overview to prepare for exam—could help out - Finishing last week’s notes - Can personality kill? - Personality as a predictor of mortality among patients with congestive heart failure o Particularly looking at neuroticism o They’ve all gone through heart event, back to normal o Follow up for two years o 20 deaths o **Neuroticism was significant and independent predictor of mortality (when we control for all other factors)  Significant correlation o Consequences—health care professionals should be aware of neuroticism as risk factor, particularly for cardiac survivors—should provide treatment  Can’t cure neuroticism, but can change characteristic adaptations (different ways of coping, of reacting to situations, etc.) - Management of emotions o Emotional inhibition: we have differences in the extent to which we suppress or exert control over our expression of emotions o Inhibition causes some level of stress for us o Connection with sympathetic nervous system arousal (stress response) o Emotions—connecting us with other people o Social support literature—social support network is the way to cope with any kind of stress o Emotions brings people closer, makes connections o Expression of emotion: positive function, Inhibition of emotion: negative consequences o **Emotional expressiveness good for psychological health and adjustment  Disclosure: tied into this concept  Also part of idea of expression (not necessarily just emotional expression)  But it also serves function of drawing people in, making connections  When we try to inhibit an event (memory), this leads to stress, sympathetic nervous system arousal  Disclosing that event (telling that secret) is huge stress relief  Positive upturn in health - We’ll switch over to personality types o There are not a whole lot of these theories lingering, but Type A and Type B are like this o A few other type theories - To what extent are the following statements typical of you? o I like to work hard and achieve goals o I like recognition, power, and overcoming obstacles o I am at my best when competing with others o I hate wasting time o I am always in a hurry and feel pressure to get the most done in the least amount of time o I often do two things at once  Type A Behaviour pattern (not a single trait) • 1) Achievement motivation and competitiveness • 2) Time urgency (in a rush, can’t wait) • 3) Hostility and aggressiveness (quick to get angry)  Can be any combination, but for pure type A, will be high on each of the three - Type B: o 1) relaxed and unhurried (they know it’s going to happen) o 2) less likely to seek competition o 3) less likely to be aroused to anger (really tough to get them angry) o 4) rarely driven in compulsive manner  Not initially meant to be polar opposite of Type A, but it is  Lacking Type A doesn’t necessarily make you Type B—you could just be at the zero point - Type A o Associated with cardiovascular risk o 1 : A bit of an extreme example—we have to recognize that virtually no one is at this extreme end, but it shows the kinds of characteristics nd o 2 : German kid o Imagine the strain of his cardiovascular system—imagine if this is a stable personality—the amount of stress he’s under o Connection between Type A behaviour and cardiovascular event o Early research done by doctor meeting one-on-one with client, structured interview  Able to make this connection  But it’s very expensive to get a survey from doctor, not the way we collect data from clients—usually use questionnaires o Later research using self-report surveys wasn’t able to make this link o Questionnaires not able to identify the lethal component, but structured interviews were able  Lethal component: hostility (quick to anger) - Type C & D o Type C (cancer-prone personality)  Link between personality characteristics and risk factors for cancer  Functioning of immune system and risk for cancer  **Hopelessness (which is tied in with the depression) o Type D  1) High negative affect • Connected to neuroticism  2) High social inhibition • Connected to neuroticism, negatively correlated with extraversion  Anxiety, depression, more physical complaints (somatic distress) - THIS WEEK’S NOTES (THE LAST SET) - Chapter 19 - Personality disorders—a lot of text in slides so we don’t have to write as many notes—will still need to jot down a bit to make sense of it, though - Much of what we talk about with personality comes into play when we talk about disorders (biology, cognitions, etc.) - 1) Personality traits o Just like personality starts to manifest early in life (Kaspi studies—can start to identify stable characteristics from 3 months of age), same thing with characteristics of disorder (as personality forms, so does the personality disorder) o The way we think about, react to, interact with, the environment. This includes external factors and internal (the way we think about our self) o Personality exhibited in wide variety of social and interpersonal contexts, so is the disorder o For some individuals, the trait becomes extreme (off the charts)—typical standard personality trait that’s extreme and inflexible (not able to control it), it becomes maladaptive (can’t function and meet the demands of one’s life) o When that happens, it leads to functional impairment o **Unhealthy or maladaptive traits/combinations of regular traits make up personality disorder o Ex. Paranoid personality disorder (low levels of trust, high levels of hostility—relatively normal traits that become extreme, inflexible, etc.) - 2) Motives o Characteristic of personality/personality disorder o Ex. Need for intimacy (we all have it, distributed on normal distribution)  But take someone who has it exaggerated to very low desire or very high desire - 3) Cognitions o Ways of perceiving the world, interpreting, planning o Can have distorted mental processes, misinterpretation of the intentions of others o **All the personality disorders have difficulty with social interaction, often related to misinterpretation of the intentions of others (not understanding others) - 4) Emotions o Extreme fluctuations in emotions - 5) Self-concept o Instability, lack of knowing who we are at our core o This is common experience in our lives, but they take that to extreme that they have no idea who they are as people, completely lost - 6) Social relationships o This is connected to all the personality disorders o Maladaptive, impaired social relations - 7) Biology o Underlying genetics, NT functioning, physiological components - Two perspectives on personality disorders: categorical or dimensional? o We seem to be taking on more of dimensional view o Clinical psychology is moving towards this view o Right now, in the DSM, we take the categorical view, but the field is shifting (about to release next edition of the DSM, we’re hoping it will shift in more of a dimensional view) o **Categorical  Person either has disorder or doesn’t  Diagnostic process—determine yes or no  Has to be clinically significant levels of the characteristic/feature, but hard to figure how much is clinically significant—this allows the doctor some wiggle room in determining what factors should be included  Disorders viewed as distinct from each other  But they don’t fit so neatly—client will often meet characteristics for more than one disorder o **Dimensional
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