Symptoms of personality disorders can be viewed as maladaptive variations within domains of: traits, emotions, cognitions, motives, & self-concept. Personality disorders as maladaptive variations or combos of normal personality traits & common motives, esp power & intimacy. Cognitive processes can become distorted in personality disorders. Several personal disorders include extreme variations in experienced emotion. Most personality disorders include distortion of self-concept. Social relationships, esp interpersonal & sexual behaviour, frequently disturbed or involve maladaptive patterns in personality disorders. Biology forms building block of several personality disorders: genetic epidemiologic studies indicate: all 10 personality disorders (pds) modestly to moderately heritable, molecular genetic studies indicate: genes linked to neurotransmitter pathways, esp in serotonergic & dopaminergic systems, involved. Psychological disorder: pattern of behaviour or experience that"s distressing & painful to person, leads to disability or impairment in important life domains. Associated w/ increased risk for further suffering, loss of function, death, or confinement.