Class Notes (809,436)
Canada (493,713)
Psychology (2,625)
PSYC 2700 (115)
Lecture 6

PSYC 2700 Lecture 6: Top-Down Processing and the Effects of Prior Experience

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Carleton University
PSYC 2700
Jordan Richard Schoenherr

PSYC 2700 TopDown Processing and the Effects of Prior Experience *All content belongs to Jordan Richard Schoenherr where cited in lecture slides* Constructivism Environmental Regularities: Past experience, esp. in form of contextual knowledge, influences our perceptual system Bottomup processing cognitive operations use stimulus info Topdown processing involves prior knowledge Constructivism Context: *diagram in lecture slide* Paler (1975) presented participants w visually similar objects (12 pairs; e.g., 1 pair: bread mailbox) in diff contexts had to identify them o Scene (context) didnt contain objects, but were selected to be associated w them o Ps were presented scene (approp.inapprop.) or blank slide o Approp. context facilitates identification whereas inapprop. context inhibits identification Constructivism Illusions: Gregory (1970; 1980): MllerLyer illusion o Line w inward pointing arrows appears larger o Attributed to regularities in our environment To what extent were these findings generalizable to other populations? CrossCultural Differences: *graph in lecture slide* Crosscultural evidence suggests: if you dont grow up in environment w 90 walls, you wont produce bias to same extent (Segall, Campbell, Herskovits, 1966) Note: continuous nature of bias Constructivism Word Recognition: 1 of most researched areas in experimental psychology = language; most early studies focused on elementary features in context of perception (identification recognition) memory (serial recall) o Frequency effects: highfrequency words produce greater accuracy faster RTs than lowfrequency words o Similarity effects: words exist in context of other words, such that words w many neighbours (e.g., book, look, took) produce poorer results than those w fewer neighbours Issues of distinctivenesscompetition (recall uncertainty in info theory) o Semantic contexts effects: performance improved for word recognition if word presented w semantically similar words (e.g., pen, paper, ink, eraser) or in sentence
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2700

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.