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Carleton University
PSYC 2700

Lecture 7: Single, Selective, and Divided Attention Wednesday May 29, 2013 Midterm info is on CULearn • there is a test next Wednesday • the midterm is 29% • suggest to study for the midterm • 33 mc questions – 22 from class • find the PowerPoint – of the assignment because it will be evaluated • Monday’s material is on the exam • know the difference of amnesias • the easy questions – something random from the textbook • chapter: 5. 6, 10 • bonus question- doesn’t know what it is Broadbent’s Filter Theory • there is early selection process that goes on that a tune to the physical characteristics • filter cuts off anything else that is not attuned – predication • prediction: there is nothing from the unattended ear that should go through • this turns out to be true – it is because of the models • sematic problem it is impossible to predict nd • in the 2 phase - message can go to the unattended ear • conclusion: message is not completely blocked off Norman’s Pertinence Model (1968) • late selection model –sematic and physical properties • it goes to the other extreme - no early selection • predict: participants filters the sematic properties and all the properties, allowing the participants to decide what they want to shadow 1 Lecture 7: Single, Selective, and Divided Attention Wednesday May 29, 2013 • pertinence mechanism: top down mechanism – what is relevant and what we should pay attention to (i.e.: your name is always important to you)- can result in basis from the bottom up stream • there is an influence from the top down and bottom up process • the concepts that receives most activation is the one that able to go through the filter at any given time • idea: listen to things in the environment, participants have an idea what supposed to have- the most important concept should be paid to- select the most important thing to go to working memory • A late selection model is called because it waits for the bottom up and the top down process to come in. once this all in, It then determines what is important Norman’s Pertinence Model (1948) – slide 41 • i.e.: green dot represent your name – if your name comes out in attentive ear – pertinence - always expecting name and will still turn out • i.e.: word “sex” grab attention of undergrads – does not require a lot to get the attention • it does not make it to working memory unless it is really important Johnson and Heinz (1978) Multimedia Model of Attention • wanted to explore another property of attention • the filter cannot move around • attention could maybe move – that what Johnson and Heinz thought • wanted to explore the dynamics of attention • Key thing wanted to look at: they made a hypothesis that moving around attention would come at a cost. the cost is limited memory capacity • hypothesis: the more want the filter to be late and the more you look like Norman – the more resources it will take you • working memory is limited resource – there is a limit to the number of things we can think of • the limit resource can be used to play around with the filter 2 Lecture 7: Single, Selective, and Divided Attention Wednesday May 29, 2013 • i.e.: if you want to focus on just the filter, it will not take a lot of working memory resource • however if you want to do late selection, it will taking up a lot of working memory resources • the later you want the filter to work, the more process capacity is needed • how could set up the experiment: use a dual-task paradigm • dual task paradigm – doing 2 task at the same time that will serve as a measure of the working memory deployed John and Heinz (1978) Experiment 1 – Slide 49 • measured reaction time: light signal – click when see lights – give baseline measurement how fast they can do • gamers had the fastest measured reaction time • selective attention was also measured – give them earphone and get them to listen to info to get the participants to answer the true and false questions • slowdown in reaction time meant that the memory has gone somewhere else • binaural selective listening task : the same message is playing in both ears • different voices: one is a man the other is female – can use physical properties or can pay attention to the meaning of the contents read • key predication in the experiment: as task to more sematic expecting that response to the light will slow down, if they do this means that attention can be deployed dynamically Predictions of John and Heinz • 2 independent variable : participants accuracy in shadowing, the speed in which they are pressing when the button comes on • if Broadbent model is correct: when the voice is the same, the task would nearly be impossible because there is no direction cues, there is no way to select one message – basically chaos in the ear • if Norman is correct: distinguish message when the voice that means that they are able to shadow under all conditions – when looking at response time there should be uniform across conditions – should therefore see a flat line across conditions (b/c the physical and semantics needed to be first processed) 3 Lecture 7: Single, Selective, and Divided Attention Wednesday May 29, 2013 • Johnson and Heinz – the participants pay more attention to the sematic properties. There is flexible attention, can have a later selection- this means that it will use more filter – people should be slower • if you just use physical characteristics it does not affect the attention as much John and Heinz results • found that even in difficult conditions like the same voice/same meaning –it is not impossible to do – process based on meaning – slide 52 • Does the error rate distinguish show predication of Norman? No, because no reaction time • if Norman was correct the line would be straight and flat line in the response time • the data supports Johnson and Heinz: attention is flexible and that is require more working memory resource – slide 53 • at the same voice./same meaning – there is a ceiling effect: the task was difficult to a point –it therefore creates a flat line in the response time • first paper to show attention is flexible Divided Attention • Strayer and Johnson (2001) - driving while talking on the ce
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