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Cognitive Psyc: Pattern Recognition, Selective Attention, Divided Attention

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Carleton University
PSYC 2700
Chris Herdman

rd Lecture 3­ Sept. 23  Cognitive  Psychology 2700 • Pattern Recognition: We recognize patterns by only selecting certain information for further processing. I. Template Models i. Match stimulus to a mental template stored in memory. Support/examples for this idea are barcodes (Every time the code is read the same product comes up). ii. Limits: a) Inefficient: generally, it is not possible to have enough templates for everything. b) Irregular world: A lot of the objects we process are irregular. c) Strict match: they need a very strict match in order to work. II. Feature Models i. Feature more regular than patterns: Features are easier to recognize than complex objects. We can recognize more complex things by first recognizing their features. ii. Complex objects composed of simple features: even people are composed of simple objects. iii. Gibson 1969: Studied Features of letters. Said that we actually perceive letters as a breakdown of lines and curves. iv. Neisser 1964: Had people look for letters amongst a whole bunch of other letters. He found that it was harder to pick out the letter if it had similar lines to the others. Ex. Easier to find the letter z in the following: OUQZG than in these: KWYZX. v. Hubel & Wiesel: there are different cells in the eye. He found this by studying cats. 1. Simple Cells: Location specific a) Simple patterns of light b) Location specific c) Edge, slit, line 2. Complex: Same as simple but NOT location specific i. Hypercomplex: Moving lines ii. W,x,y a) Speed of transmition b) Y (movement speed) vi. Word Superiority Effect: i. Subject is shown the letter D, then a mask, then asked if they saw a D or a G. ii. Subject is shown the letter WIND, then a mask, then asked if they saw the word WIND or WING. iii. Subjects are better remembering the word WIND than the letter D. This is due to top down processing. vii. Repetition Blindness: we fail to see something when it happens a second time or is repeated. i. RSVP: Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. Says that people fail to respond to/see stimulus the second time. viii. Avant & Lydall: Masking of BOY vs YOB. Found a shorter interval is required to erase BOY than YOB. In other words, the interval between the letters and the mask needed to be shorter for a real world. This is because real words are processed much more quickly. ix. Top Down: knowledge we already have is used to process information more quickly. vii. Object Recognition i. RBC Theory: All objects are made up of features, and all features are common forms called Geons (fundamental geometric forms). Our system breaks objects down onto these geons, and we note where the geons connect. These geometric combos are remembered. Bottom up model. ii. Agnosia: Failure/difficulty in recognizing objects. Causes by specific brain damage. a) Apperceptive Agnosia: disruption in perceiving patterns. Can see lines, colour, etc. but cannot process into a whole. Located in the right parietal lobe. b) Associative Agnosia: Can form gestalt, can copy a drawing, but cannot associate with meaning. Temporal lobes of both hemispheres. iii. Prosopagnosia: disruption of face recognition. Can be visual or auditory • Selective Attention I. Filter Theory (Broadbent):
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