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Cognitive Psyc: Short Term Store, Working Memory

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Carleton University
PSYC 2700
Chris Herdman

st Lecture 6­ Oct. 21  Cognitive Psychology Objective of today’s lectures is to move from the original concept of STS to the concept of Working Memory. We begin by revisiting the evidence that we used to develop the original concept of STS (remembering a list of words) and show that the evidence is not unequivocal. • STS evidence revisited A. Amnesics can learn: They cannot remember things, but they can learn. It is shown that Korsakov patients who do a puzzle over and over again get better at the puzzle, even though they don’t remember doing it. B. Serial Position Curve i. Bjork and Whitten Paired associate task: Shown a list of pairs of words. There is a 20 second delay at the end of the task with a distraction. They are then cued with the first word, and asked to recall the paired word. Found strong recency effects even with distraction, suggests that recency effects may reflect more than just retrieval from STS. C. STS Code not just AVL i. Kroll: Had people do a shadowing task, and were given a test letter during the task. In one condition people saw the letter, in another they heard it. The task was to remember the letter while shadowing, for about 10-15 seconds. For a short interval (1-3seconds) people did well remembering the letter visually or audibly. For a long interval, visual retention was stronger. ii. Shepard and Metzler: Gave people 3D objects on a paper, and had them rotate the objects mentally to see if it matched another object. It was found that people could complete the task, and could complete it faster the less the object had to be rotated. This shows that visual codes are used to temporarily store and manipulate information. iii. Shulman: Gave participants lists of 10 words. They were then given another word, and asked if it was in the list. Similar words, like boat when ship was in the list, people were more likely to make a mistake and say they saw a word they didn’t. • Working Memory (WM) A. Baddeley: i. STS: initially viewed as a storage system. However, the same system seems to be important for active processing and manipulation of info. This means we needed a new concept to extend STS. Thus he came up with… ii. WM: Active system for temporary store and manipulation of info. iii. Components of the WM: Central Executive Plan actions, integrate information Initiate control/decision Transfer of info to/from LTS - rehearsal, recoding Phonological Loop Visuo-spatial Sketchpad Recycle info for immediate recall Visual imagery tasks Rehearsal of
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