PSYC 2800 Lecture Notes - Olfactory Receptor Neuron, Olfactory Mucosa, Olfactory Receptor

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20 Apr 2012
Lecture #1 *Final+
Cognitive interpretation of subjective feelings
Interpretation of physiological symptoms (chills, increased HR)
E.g., anger, sadness, fear
Can occur unconsciously and influence behavior
Motivation: What we do with emotions
Goal directed behaviour
Can result from emotions. Feel stressed so study.
Subjective; can occur without awareness. Ex: Eat without thinking
Neuroanatomy of emotion and motivation: Structures implicated=
Limbic System
Frontal Lobes
What Causes Behaviour?
Is it free will?
Possible explanation: brain needs stimulation? Experience world through
senses and engage in motor behavior to deal with it.
Sensory Deprivation
Subject is allowed only restricted sensory input: No sight, sound or
Low tolerance for deprivation and may even display hallucinations
If brain not receive stimulation , may produce it on its own
Hebb and Heron (1950s)
After about 4 to 8 hours, subjects became quite distressed; few
subjects lasted more than 24 hours
Brain has an inherent need for stimulation; one reason that we
engage in behavior is to stimulate the brain
Similar studies with rhesus monkeys: Do tricks to look through window
(stimulation) when deprived.
Drives and Behavior
Hypothetical state of arousal that motivates an organism to engage in
a particular behavior
Hungry-hunger drive-look for food
Drive theories of motivation assume the brain is storing energy for behavior
“Flush” model:
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Empty reservoir fills up over time, when full, engage in behavior to
empty reservoir again
Once a behavior is started, it will continue until all the energy
in its reservoir is gone
There are separate stores of energy for different behaviors
Later proved wrong, particularly when looking at non-biological drives
Neural Circuits and Behavior
Researchers have not been able to link drives and brain activity. Brain
during drive state no different than not in drive state.
Behavioral change correlates with changes in hormones and cellular activity
Example: A man’s frequency of copulation is correlated with his levels
of male hormones, called androgens (male hormones related to level
of sexual interest). More of these hormones= have more sex.
Stimulating brain cells activated by androgens, induces sexual
behaviour. Motivational states correlated with brain activity.
Conclude: neuronal activity responsible for behaviour, not drives
Evolutionary Influences on Behavior
Innate Releasing Mechanism (IRM): Hypothetical mechanism that detects
specific sensory stimuli and directs an organism to take a particular action
Innate (part of genome); releasing (trigger behaviours)
Cats do attack behavior when shown Halloween cat image. Smile at
babies, they smile back (mimick). Blind kids show same facial
expressions .
The brain must have a set of norms against which it can match stimuli
so as to trigger an appropriate response
Although IRMs are prewired into the brain, they can be modified with
Sexual stimuli not affect us when little but as we age, they have a different
Evolutionary Influences on Behavior (2)
Evolutionary Psychology
Discipline that seeks to apply principles of natural selection to
understand the causes of human behavior
Behaviors exist because the neural circuits producing them have been
favored through natural selection
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