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Carleton University
PSYC 2800
Amanda Helleman

Lecture #1 *Final+ • Emotion – Cognitive interpretation of subjective feelings – Interpretation of physiological symptoms (chills, increased HR) – E.g., anger, sadness, fear – Can occur unconsciously and influence behavior • Motivation: What we do with emotions – Goal directed behaviour – Can result from emotions. Feel stressed so study. – Subjective; can occur without awareness. Ex: Eat without thinking • Neuroanatomy of emotion and motivation: Structures implicated= – Hypothalamus – Limbic System – Frontal Lobes – What Causes Behaviour? • Is it free will? • Possible explanation: brain needs stimulation? Experience world through senses and engage in motor behavior to deal with it. • Sensory Deprivation – Subject is allowed only restricted sensory input: No sight, sound or touch. – Low tolerance for deprivation and may even display hallucinations – If brain not receive stimulation , may produce it on its own • Hebb and Heron (1950s) – After about 4 to 8 hours, subjects became quite distressed; few subjects lasted more than 24 hours – Brain has an inherent need for stimulation; one reason that we engage in behavior is to stimulate the brain • Similar studies with rhesus monkeys: Do tricks to look through window (stimulation) when deprived. • Drives and Behavior • Drive – Hypothetical state of arousal that motivates an organism to engage in a particular behavior – Hungry-hunger drive-look for food • Drive theories of motivation assume the brain is storing energy for behavior – “Flush” model: – Empty reservoir fills up over time, when full, engage in behavior to empty reservoir again • Once a behavior is started, it will continue until all the energy in its reservoir is gone • There are separate stores of energy for different behaviors • Later proved wrong, particularly when looking at non-biological drives (friendship) • Neural Circuits and Behavior • Researchers have not been able to link drives and brain activity. Brain during drive state no different than not in drive state. • Behavioral change correlates with changes in hormones and cellular activity – Example: A man’s frequency of copulation is correlated with his levels of male hormones, called androgens (male hormones related to level of sexual interest). More of these hormones= have more sex. – Stimulating brain cells activated by androgens, induces sexual behaviour. Motivational states correlated with brain activity. • Conclude: neuronal activity responsible for behaviour, not drives • Evolutionary Influences on Behavior • Innate Releasing Mechanism (IRM): Hypothetical mechanism that detects specific sensory stimuli and directs an organism to take a particular action – Innate (part of genome); releasing (trigger behaviours) – Cats do attack behavior when shown Halloween cat image. Smile at babies, they smile back (mimick). Blind kids show same facial expressions . – The brain must have a set of norms against which it can match stimuli so as to trigger an appropriate response • Although IRMs are prewired into the brain, they can be modified with experience • Sexual stimuli not affect us when little but as we age, they have a different meaning – Evolutionary Influences on Behavior (2) • Evolutionary Psychology – Discipline that seeks to apply principles of natural selection to understand the causes of human behavior • Behaviors exist because the neural circuits producing them have been favored through natural selection – E.g., homicide – exists today because related to past adaptive behaviours • The Chemical Senses • Play a central role in motivated and emotional behaviour – Smell: mark territories, identify group members (urine; sweat) – Taste: identify foods ( food from non food, avoid poisons) • Old senses • Olfaction • Stimulus: Odorants (volatile chemicals), something that enters air and can exist in air molecule. Ex: Can’t smell a desk, its not volatile • Organ: Olfactory epithelium *OE+(retina of the nose) – Contains receptor cells (olfactory sensory neurons) and support cells – Receptor cells send cilia into the olfactory mucosa • Airborne chemicals dissolve in the olfactory mucosa and interact with the cilia – Activation of metabotropic receptors leads to the opening of sodium channels and subsequent change in membrane potential – Smell things, enter OE, receptor cells detect volatile odorants with cilia 9receptors on cilia specific to detect specific odorants), causes change in membrane p
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