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Lecture 3

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PSYC 3402
Julie Blais

Lecture 3 Theories on Kip Kinkel - Lombroso • Some people not as developed as others. Kip Kinkel had facial features that were messed up - Sheldon • Somatotype (ecto, meso, etc...). Kip was an ectomorph (smaller) - Conflict/strain/subculture theory • Hard to explain Kip in this b/c he was middle class and they had conventional values - Gluek • Influence of parenting. On Kip, there was a lot of pressure to succeed, strict, disciplined, told psychologist he didn’t feel warmth from father. Got caught stealing CDs and they gave him a computer. - Gottfredson and Hirschi - Social learning • Family unit: got a computer after arrested, never really punished for bad behavior • Peers: skater group, bad kids always getting into trouble at school • Media: obsessed with other school shootings, Marilyn Manson, Romeo and Juliet Meta-analysis - Synthesis of what has been done in a particular area of study • Utilizes a common metric (ex: the effect size) to compare effects across studies - Meta-analysis is NOT a narrative literature review; it is a quantitative technique for summarizing effect sizes across studies - Example: what predicts recidivism for sex offenders? • Decide what effect size you will code; decide on your search parameters; outline how you will define your outcome measure • Search far and wide for every single study that looks at the effect you are interested in! (published, unpublished, conference presentations, dissertations, email authors) • Code all effect sizes possible • Data analysis (this gets complicated!) Meta-analysis and the CI - The results are aggregated into an overall point estimate and CI shown by the diamond shape at the bottom... the width of the diamond shows the overall CI and its highest point shows the overall point estimate Meta-analysis - Very powerful tool in summarizing research - Limitations: • Not all meta-analyses are created equal • Garbage in, garbage out • Publication bias Literature reviews - If you are asked to summarize the literature in a particular area of study (ex: for a thesis) and there has been a published meta-analysis in that area, then talking about individual studies is inappropriate - If there is a meta-analysis, then that is the study you should be talking about - Ex: psychopathy and recidivism- a dozen meta-analyses have been conducted. It is no longer appropriate to focus in individual studies because they are all included in at least one meta-analysis Correlation - Pearson correlation coefficient (r) - Range from -1 to +1 - 0 = no relationship between IV (x) and DV (y) - Negative = as IV increases, DV decreases - Positive = as IV increases, DV increases Review scatterplots and correlations Direction and strength of r - +1 = perfect - Strength = the # - Direction (+ or -) Other important research designs - Cross-sectional studies • Validity depends upon equivalent matched features (2 different groups) - Longitudinal studies • Offers temporal sequence (1 group through time) Risk factors - Individual or environmental variables associated with greater likelihood of involvement in criminality • Cumulative and interactive, not simply additive - “Protective factors” • Variables that enhance the resilience of those exposed to high levels of risk and protect them from undesirable outcomes • Decrease likelihood of engaging in CB - Static factors • Fixed or determined beforehand by prior events. Can only go in 1 direction. Increase - Dynamic factors • Reflect internal states or temporary circumstances that fluctuate over time (relatively stable or acute) • 2 types:  Criminogenic needs  Dynamic factors that will reduce chances of crime if reduced  Non-criminogenic needs  Changeable, not related to criminal behavior Central 8 risk factors - History of antisocial behavior - Antisocial personality pattern - Antisocial attitudes/cognition - Antisocial associates - Family/marital problems - School/work problems - Leisure/recreation - Substance abuse - *** In bold = the Big 4 *** History of antisocial behavior - This is a static risk factor - Additive effect (your criminal history grows) - Early involveme
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