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Lecture 4

PSYC 3403 Lecture 4: Addiction class 4

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PSYC 3403
Tarry Ahuja

Addiction Class 4 February 1 2016 Methamphetamine - Was made to treat ADHD - Easily combined with over the counter (OTC) products - Smoked or injected - Long biological half life (12 hours) Effects: - Anything with amphetamine is an upper - Resembles cocaine - Violent behaviour - Acute delusions and psychotics symptoms - Psychosis damage may be irreversible - “Meth mouth” tooth decay, because its acidic, gets rid of protective layer around teeth, people tend to grind their teeth Alcohol and other drug use by offender Substance abuse and crime - 70-80% of all offenders have a substance use problems - Just over 50% will tell you their offending is related to substance abuse - 56% of offenders indicate that alcohol and other drugs is related to at least one crime on their current sentence - Out of these 56%, 41% is alcohol only, and 30% is only drugs, and 29% is both - Graphs shows that alcohol increases violence Characteristics of effective correctional Programs • Evidence-based • Effective methods and techniques • Multi-faceted – uses different treatment modalities • Appropriate intensity – Low to High • Program Integrity – based on conceptual model/delivered consistently according to design • Quality staff – selection criteria • Well-trained staff – certified, monitored, supported • Management support • Supportive environment • Proper selection of participants • Evaluation and Monitoring Client treatment matching - Low severity = low intense response - Moderate severity = moderate intensity - Sever problem = high intensity - **Substance is a criminogenic need Benefits of Matching • Many offenders do not need extensive treatment (contrary to popular belief) • Avoid unnecessary or ineffective treatment • More accurate understanding of treatment model and logic • Increased treatment efficacy • Increased cost effectiveness • Consistent with “Risk Principle” High risk cases have most to gain High risk cases respond better to intensive treatment Low risk cases do as well or better with minimal vs. intensive treatment Placing low risk offenders with high risk individuals may make them worse!!! - Efficacy is a fancy was of saying effectiveness Guest lecture = Will - prison population: substance use disorders prevalent in 50-90% of prison pop - Psychopathy prevelant in 12-21% of offender - 1% in gen pop 2 types of psychopaths: 1) interpersonal/affective : higher scores, focus on callous unemotional personality and behaviour pattern, cold and manipulative 2) Antisocial/behavioural: secondary psychopathy, impulsive and irresponsible, chaotic lifestyle, unstable, frequent criminal behaviour 3 stage model of addiction • Koob and Le Moal (2008) • Addiction moves along a continuum from impulsivity as a primary motivator for drug use to compulsivity as a primary motivator • Three stages: Binge/intoxication stage Impulsive drug taking associated with sensitization of reward pathways and then a tolerance Withdrawal/negative affect stage Physiological aversive symptoms with a strong affective component Preoccupation/craving stage Involves constant thinking about the drug and when to get the next “hit” Psychopathy and substance use • Hopley and Brunelle, 2012 Psychopathy significantly associated with psychostimulant, hallucinogen and opioid dependence • Hemphill, Hart and Hare, 1994 No statistically significant difference between psychopaths and non-psychopaths regarding drug abuse PCL-R factor 2 correlated with substance dependence (but not factor 1!) Psychopathy as a risk factor: - Impulsivity is acting toward a rewarding stimulus no matter what the consequence is - Compulsivity is doing something to avoid a negative consequence (doing drug so you don’t go through withdrawal) - Psychopaths are sensation seekers and get bored extremely easily The brain - Psychopathic individuals have inactive frontal lobes, they’re smaller and react less, and it leads to impuls
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