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Lecture 7

Lecture 7.docx

10 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 3403
Tarry Ahuja

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Lecture 7 Overview - Caffeine • Pharmacokinetics • Pharmacological effects - Nicotine • Pharmacokinetics • Pharmacological effects • Therapy Caffeine - The most commonly consumed psychoactive drug in the world - Consumed daily by 90% of the adult population - Cup of coffee: 100mg of caffeine - Can of pop: 40mg of caffeine - Excedrin: 65mg of caffeine - No restrictions on the sale or use of caffeine - Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid - Also called guaranine/mateine/theine - Acts as a natural pesticide - Consumed in the Stone Age to 3000 BC Caffeine (pharmacokinetics) - Rapidly and completely absorbed - Peak plasma levels at 120 minutes - Freely and equally distributed throughout total body (will get various effects) - 10% of the drug is excreted unchanged (body has more than it can handle) Caffeine - Paraxanthine: increases lypolysis (breakdown of fats) - Theobromine: dilates blood vessels and increases urine volume - Theophylline: relaxes smooth muscles of bronchi, used to treat asthma Caffeine (pharmacokinetics) - Metabolized by CYP1A2 • Having low levels of it will affect you more - Fluvoxamine (SSRI) potent inhibitor of CYP1A2 • 2 cups of coffee could = to 6 cups. The SSRI blocks the breakdown of caffeine - Half-life of 3.5 to 5 hours - Half-life extended in infants/pregnant/elderly Caffeine (pharmacological effects) - CNS and metabolic stimulant - Restores mental alertness and wakefulness - Heavy consumption (1.5g/day): • Agitation • Anxiety • Tremors • Insomnia - Lethal dose: 10g (100 cups of coffee) - Anxiogenic (produces anxiety) properties must be considered - Caffeinism: clinical syndrome • CNS (center) and PNS (peripheral) symptoms • Due to overuse/overdose of caffeine • CNS- anxiety/agitation/insomnia • PNS- tachycardia/hypertension/GI - Doses higher than 1g (10 cups) Caffeine (pharmacological effects) - Increases cardiac contractility and output - Dilates coronary arteries, more O 2 - Constricts cerebral blood vessels, less O 2 - Physical actions: • Bronchial relaxation (antiasthmatic) • Increased secretion of gastric acid • Increased urine output Caffeine (mechanism) - Caffeine is an adenosine antagonist - Competitive inhibitor • Caffeine blocks inhibitors in order to speed up processes (removes the brakes) - Adenosine has sedative properties - Adenosine receptors stimulate GABAergic neurons in dopamine reward system - Leads to release of dopamine in prefrontal cortex - Does not affect reward, motivation, addiction centers Caffeine (health Canada) - Caffeine intake (adults): • 60% coffee • 30% tea • 10% cola, energy drinks, chocolate - Caffeine intake (children 1-5): • 55% cola drinks • 30% tea • 14% chocolate • 1% other Caffeine (health Canada) - (Adults): limit intake to 400mg/day 2+ - Increased Ca intake through diet can prevent detriment to bone health - Caffeine intake for groups at risk: • 45mg ages 4-5 • 62.5mg ages 7-9 • 85mg ages 10-12 • ~ 1-2 cans of cola Caffeine (health Canada) - (Pregnant): limit intake to
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