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Lecture 11

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PSYC 3403
Tarry Ahuja

Lecture 11 Overview - History - Testosterone - Physiological effects - Mechanism - Psychological effects History - In 1889, Charles-Edouard Brown-Sequard injected himself with extract (dog/g.pig) - 1935, isolated compound as testosterone - Human testing began in 1937 - 1938, mentioned in a bodybuilding mag - WWII German scientists: • Chronic wasting (POW/concentration camp) • Soldier supplement (increase aggression) • Adolph Hitler - Russia/Eastern Block (1940s) • Amateur/Olympic athletes - USA(1950) • Methandrostenolone (Dianabol) Testosterone - Is a steroid hormone - Secreted from the testes and ovaries • Only the levels of testosterone is different (more for men, less for women) - Testes + sterol + ketone = testosterone - Male sex hormone - Endogenous anabolic steroid • Acompound we produce ourselves (Don’t worry about structure) Testosterone (synthesis) Testosterone (synthesis) **KNOW THIS!!** - Involves: • Hypothalamus • Pituitary gland • Testes - Negative feedback system: • Testosterone levels detected by hypothalamus R • Low levels cause release of GRF (Gonadotropin-Releasing Factor) - GRF stimulates pituitary to produce: • FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) • LH (luteinizing hormone) - FSH and LH act on testes to: • Induce spermatogenesis • Synthesis/release of testosterone (by leydig cells) - As levels of testosterone increase, it will tell the hypothalamus to slow down, that it has enough, and therefore there will be less GRF released, meaning there will be less FSH and LH released - Negative feedback loop because as levels increase, it is sending an inhibitory signal back to the hypothalamus to pull back Testosterone (synthesis) - Steroids come in and mess up the whole system - Steroids block production of GRF, FSH, and LH, which ends up lowering testosterone production - Steroids lower our own endogenous production of testosterone - Short term is ok. Long term is a bad thing. The body says “you haven’t wanted my testosterone that I made you for the past 6 weeks, so screw you, I won’t make it anymore. I’m going to pull back on my production”. Sometimes body won’t go back to making more testosterone Steroids - Effects of excessive steroid use: • Block regular testosterone release • Reduce spermatogenesis • Decrease male fertility • Increase muscle mass (good) • More masculine appearance (good for guy, bad for girl) • Increased aggression - Anabolic effects: • Increased protein synthesis • Increased appetite • Bone remodeling and growth • Increased production of rbc (red blood cell count) - Androgenic effects: • Increased hair growth (public, chest) • Increased vocal chord size • Increased libido • Growth of clitoris • Increased breast size in men Steroids (effects) - Supratherapeutic doses can: • Increase tonic/burst muscle (leg muscles needed to run/blast off) (athletes) • Better strength and endurance (want this if just building. Not athlete) • Hypogonadal state (atrophy of testicles)  Your balls will never be the same • Lower HDL(high density lipoprotein) (GOOD STUFF) and increase LDL (low density lipoprotein) (BAD STUFF) • Risk of liver disorders  Liver breaks down steroids. It’s a lot of work, so your liver works overtime Steroids - Therapeutic uses for anabolic steroids: • Testosterone replacement for hypogonadism  Must take testosterone to make up for lost testosterone (negative feedback loop), putting them back in a therapeutic range (normal range), rather than the one where they are getting ripped af • Certain blood anemias  Testosterone causes an upped blood cell count, which is desirable if they have anemia • Muscle loss after trauma • Muscle loss due to disease  HIV/COPD/renal dialysis Steroids (mechanism) - Rapidly absorbed by GI tract - Enters blood travels to liver - Effectively metabolized by enzymes (first pass metabolism) - IV injection bypasses first pass metabolism - Breakdown of testosterone = Metabolite androstanolone is active Steroids (psychological effects) - Changes in behavior and motivation • As an athlete, you can find improvements. It is a rewarding behavior, so you take more - Increased aggression, “roid rage” • Desirable for soldiers, but not for athletes - Steroid induced aggression vs. behavior • Long term changes in behavior when on long term steroids • Behavioral changes ex: gotta go to the gym or I’ll lose my pump!! - Potential screen for individuals with violent behavior Steroids (physical dependence) - Users can suffer from withdrawal syndrome, including… • Moderate to severe depression • Fatigue • Restlessness • Insomnia • Loss of appetite • Decreased libido • Suicide ideation Steroid addiction (prevalence) - In 2004, 0.6% of Canadians had used anabolic steroids - Youth survey (105 schools, 5 regions) • 2.8% of the respondents used anabolic-androgenic steroids (~83,000) • 30% of those users injected • 30% of those shared their needle - Almost 80% of all steroids users are not athletes that compete and are not bodybuilders SEX AND GAMBLING ADDICTION Overview - Gambling addiction • History • Pathological gambling • Phases • Assessment/treatment - Sexual addiction • Symptoms • Types • Behavior cycle • Treatment Gambling - Definition: wagering money or something of material value on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money and/or material goods - Has been prevalent for hundreds of years - Many religious groups and governments prohibit gambling - Most countries regulate gambling Gambling - Licensing/regulating gambling can: • Lead to illegal gambling • Lead to gambling tourism - Governments can tax and regulate: • Monaco • Macau - Gambling is legal in the US: • Las Vegas (1931) • Atlantic City and New Jersey (1976) • NativeAmerican Tribes (1987) Gambling - Society glamorizes gambling and casinos - Many forms of gambling/lottery readily available: • Casinos • Sports betting • Quick-pick lotteries (lotto 649, super 7) • Scratch’n’win tickets • McDonald’s monopoly, roll-up the rim Gambling (pathological gambling) - Pathological gambling: an individual begins to show biological sym
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