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Lecture 6

Lecture 6 - Cocaine Amphetamines.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3403
Professor
Tarry Ahuja
Semester
Winter

Description
Midterm Exam – February 26, 2014 6:00 – 9:00 pm, 360 Tory Bldg (PMC Students) UC-133 • Chapter 1-3, 7, 12,13 Q & A Session with TA • Thursday (February 13th, 2:00 – 3:00pm) • Tuesday (February 25th, 1:00 – 2:00 pm) Location TBD When you send in your paper, name it “assignment 1”your name will be associated with it once it is submitted. (more info on CULearn) Chapter 12 Lecture 6 – February 12, 2014 Psychostimulants: Cocaine and Amphetamines Overview • cocaine • pharmacokinetics • pharmacological effects • amphetamines • pharmacological effects • ice • methamphetamines Cocaine • derived from the Erythroxylon coca plant -(distinct as they are one of the only drugs to by naturally grown – They are grown in fields on a large scale, have certain requirements to grow) • native to the mountain ranges of S.America (warm and moist, fertile soil – all what the plant needs) • locals would chew on the coca leaves (found that if they chewed on the leaves they found it invigorating/energized) • help with endurance, stamina and appetite (suppresses appetite – good because when there was a lack of food chewing on the leaves would suppresses their need to eat as well as increasing endurance and stamina) • 90% of all cocaine consumed here from Columbia (we don’t make out own generally speaking, most of it comes from abroad. Rates of use from their countries is low – import for us and export for them – Bolivia, peru) Cocaine • plant is resistant to drought & disease • harvested several times per year • field workers were given four breaks daily ( and given some cocaine leaves to chew on during break so the employer wouldn’t have to feed their employees and they were less likely to tire) • active ingredient first isolated in 1860 • cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid - Active component is crystalline tropane alkaloid - Once we know the structure we can understand how it affects the body/receptors Cocaine (structure) 2-D Structure *no need to memorize chemical structure – simply important that we know what it looks like 3-D Structure Cocaine (History) • Freud (1884) used and prescribed the drug • believed it to be the “cure-all” - Believedthis becausetheyweren’t sedated,they werehappy andtheredidn’t seemto beany side-effects • thought it could cure opioid addiction (morphine and heroine) - Genius at the time • later learned of its tolerance and dependence - Took some himself and learned of it’s problems once he stopped taking it (side-effect) - Began to see tolerance and dependence in his patients • called it the “third scourge” of humanity Cocaine (Metabolism) • cocaine has a half-life of approx. 50 min - Half-life is the time required to reduce the drug in your blood to 50% • brain: 8 hrs, urine: 12 hrs - Leaves blood completely in almost 6 hours, but takes longer to leave the brain and urine and can sometimes find it in hair strands and fat deposits even after that. You could potentially find it a day after you took it. • major metabolite is benzoylecgonine - Metabolite: active – meaning it does something to you while in your body, inactive - means it doesn’t do anything in your body and you’ll simply expel it. - When cocaine breaks down it metabolizes into benzoylecgonine • benzoylecgonine can be detected for 2 weeks • marker for drug testing Cocaine (Metabolism) • interacts with EtOH - Cocaine and alcohol affect each other and produces “cocaethylene” • produces metabolite: • cocaethylene - An active metabolite and blocks dopamine reuptake • blocks presynaptic DA reuptake transporter • metabolite more toxic than cocaine - Not only is it an active metabolite it is worse than cocaine itself Cocaine (Administration) • can be administered: • orally • intranasal • intravenous • smoking • dictates speed and duration of “high” • cocaine HCl (cocaine hydrochloride) is a potent vasoconstrictor (constricts your blood vessels – raising your blood pressure) - If you have a weak heart you could have a cardiac event because it is a vasoconstrictor - Chronic use could result in permanent heart conditions Initial onset of action = how long does it take for me to feel it (in seconds) Crack is different, you can’t smoke cocaine hydrochloride, smoke point is low so you would burn it instead. Crack is ether based and allows you to smoke it since it has a higher smoke point Given the name crack because there are bubbles of water/ether in the make-up which “pop” and “crack” when you heat it. Crack is dramatic compared to cocaine. Crack you know you need your next fix before you pass out or lose your high, far worse for you. Cocaine you can do a few lines and go about your party and do more later, you don’t NEED it right away. Cocaine is very rare that you can walk away from it after one use. It is a “sticky drug” hard to quit it Cocaine (Administration) - If you snort cocaine it gets to your heart, which pumps it to your lungs, and back to your heart then to your brain - If you smoke cocaine it goes to your lungs then heart then brain. Faster than snorting - No standard dosage – What you might do compared to what I might do is different. o Concerns as to when someone else makes your line for you as you could potentially be getting more than you normally take and either making your
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