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Lecture 2A - Synaptic Transmission.docx

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Carleton University
PSYC 3403
Tarry Ahuja

Lecture 2A– Synaptic Transmission The Neuron, Synaptic Transmission, and Neurotransmission Chapter 3 Lecture 2A – January 15, 2014 Overview • brain anatomy - Rats and humans are very similar in brain function • neurons and their structure • what is a “synapse” • structure and morphology of a synapse • synaptic release and transmission • neurotransmitters (NTs) Brain Anatomy (structures) - Two sides of brain are connected by the corpus callosum - Skull: purpose is to protect, Cavemen’s skull plates were much thicker than we typically see today. Evolutionary change. Our skulls got thinner partly because your brain hits a platue that says you can only hold so much info in a tight space. (ie. Think of paper example, you have an 8x11 piece of paper that you must fit in and 8x11 box. You write everything you know on it but eventually you reach a point that you can no longer write things on it. So you smoosh the paper up into a ball which now takes up much less space in the small box.) - *brain stem = important o Called old brain because it was considered the first part to grow Lecture 2A– Synaptic Transmission Brain Stem The brain stem is involved with regulation of: • respiration • blood pressure • heart rate • G.I. functioning • states of sleep / wakefulness • behavioral alerting • attention • arousal - These are considered automatic things the brain controls without you haven’t to consciously think about. Brain Anatomy (lobes) Landmarks = are in everyone’s brains and are easily distinguishable Central fissure = split down the middle Central sulcus = where the yellow and pink meet Lecture 2A– Synaptic Transmission Brain Anatomy (Frontal Lobe) • located in front of the central sulcus • functions: • motor function • memory • language • emotion • hemispheric differences(means that the two sides of the brain do different things) (left-frontal) : language related movement (right-frontal): non-verbal movement • prone to injury - Because it is that part that leads when we walk, it hits the wall first Brain Anatomy (Temporal Lobe) • located below the lateral fissure • functions: Lecture 2A– Synaptic Transmission • auditory function • memory • visual perception • hemispheric differences (left) : language comprehension (right): auditory discrimination • role in emotional and motivational behaviour Brain Anatomy (Parietal Lobe) • located behind central sulcus • functions: • body information • touch • muscle-stretch • somatosensory representation (homunculus) Homunculus Lecture 2A– Synaptic Transmission Lecture 2A– Synaptic Transmission  He is based on how much brain is dedicated to each body part (there is more brain function/power focused on hands than elbows) Brain Anatomy (Occipital Lobe) • located at the posterior of the cortex • functions: • visual area The Phineas Gage Story • Phineas Gage was a railway construction worker in the late 1800’s • He was a very social and happy individual • On September 13, 1848 there was an accidental explosion • A tamping iron went under his left cheek bone and exited his head Lecture 2A– Synaptic Transmission • Phineas Gage was knocked down, and became epileptic (had a seizure, why? Because of nerve transmitters, The injury put forth lots of nerve transmitters) • after he was awake and speaking and was aware of his surroundings • most of his left frontal lobe was destroyed • he returned home 10 weeks later and returned to work 7 months later • Phineas underwent a significant behavioral change - His ability to connect emotionally, memory and function was significantly impaired Neurons • the human brain contains at least 100 billion neurons - These are the basic building blocks of the brain • neurons are cells specialized (designed) for signal transmission - In order to communicate • neurons maintain an electric ch
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