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Lecture 4

Lecture 4.docx

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PSYC 3405
Brenda Baird

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Lecture 4 Main points - The self - Self-concept/self-esteem - Cognitive dissonance - Identity - Agency The “self” - The self involves 3 motivational quests: • Quest to define the self (self-concept) • Quest to relate to society (identity) • Quest to discover and develop self-potential (agency) Self-esteem vs. self-concept - Self concept- relatively stable set of perceptions that you hold about yourself • Mental and physical attributes • Do not change • Characteristics that you believe about yourself • Description of who you are - Self esteem- evaluations of self worth • Self respect • Self efficacy • Evaluation of who you are • Can fluctuate, rise and fall, within the course of the day Self-esteem: what is your value? - While self-concept refers to your description of who you are, self-esteem refers to your evaluation of who you are - Your self-esteem can fluctuate and rise or fall within the course of a day Assessing self-worth - Gave people questionnaires and were looking at their self-worth and then their skills. The dimensions were appearance (physical), conduct and acceptance (if others accept you) athletic and scholastic ability. They had to rate themselves on these five things. Same scores, but when it came to self-worth they had very different evaluations. Why? If you rate first three high, but know last two are low, and you are hanging out with people who are in university or a bunch of athletes, you will rate yourself low because you value those things more than what you are good at. The other person doesn’t care about these things as much, they care more about what they are good at, it suits their life style, so their self-worth affects the attributes you have. The value of the thing is very important. Self-esteem and motivation - Fallacy of self-esteem as causal - Self-esteem correlates with achievement, but, self-esteem is the outcome of achievement (prior history of success/failure), so… - Self-esteem is not a motivating force per se • Motivation creates self-esteem- build self-esteem by the outcome of success. If you take something on and you are motivated to do it and you succeed that builds your success The self-concept - How the self-concept develops • Reflected appraisal: the looking-glass self  Reflected appraisal  Self-concept is constructed socially. We wouldn’t have a self-concept if it wasn’t due to social construct. Each of us develops a self-concept that matches the way we believe others see us  Significant others: people whose opinions we especially value • Social comparison  We evaluate ourselves in terms of how we compare to others  Reference groups: groups against which we compare ourselves, thereby influencing our self-esteem and self concept How the self-concept develops - Roles we assume (self-schemas) • Assume different roles and different scripts in different situations. Schemas for a student, parents, sister, etc... - Schemas are domain specific • As we get older, expand and differentiate into different roles, more roles - Self-concept is a collection of schemas • Strong self concept you can be many things and good at many things • This all becomes a collection and we have this global sense of who we are because of all of these schemas The self-concept - Characteristics of the self-concept • The self-concept is subjective  Sense of who you are has been dictated by significant people in your world (may be biased). • The self-concept resists change  Cognitive conservatism: tendency to cling to an existing self concept even when evidence shows that it is obsolete - But, how do schemas motivate? Schemas as motivational forces - To preserve a consistent self • No one likes to be told that their view of who they are is not the correct one. This generates an inconsistent view of who you are. We like to have consistency. - To develop an ideal self Motivation to preserve self - Self-schemas direct behavior that is consistent with the self-view • Consistent feedback = comfort - Feedback that contradicts the self-schema produces discomfort • Inconsistent feedback = tension  Tension motivates the self to restore consistency - Selective interaction • Ex: frie
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