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Lecture 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3405
Professor
Brenda Baird
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 3 ** FOR EXAM – important to know what each of the 4 Self determination theory  extrinsic means / what the continuum is ** Types of motivation - Intrinsic: motivation generated by an innate, internal need - Extrinsic: motivation generated by incentives and consequences of external events (environmental) Origins of intrinsic motivation - Inherent desire to engage one’s interest and to exercise and develop one’s capacities • Satisfies psychological needs – e.g. autonomy, competence, relatedness Benefits of intrinsic motivation - Benefits: • Persistence – the higher a person’s intrinsic motivation, the greater his or her persistence on that task • Creativity – the greater the interest, enjoyment, satisfaction, and challenge of the work itself, the higher people will be creative • Conceptual Understanding / High Quality Learning – flexible thinking, active information processing, learning conceptually  Going beyond just memorizing the material • Optimal Functioning and Well-Being – greater self actualization, subjective vitality, less anxiety and depression, greater self-esteem External regulation of motivation: incentives, consequences, and rewards - Environmentally created reason (ex: incentives or consequences) • Incentives – expectations, happen before event • Consequences – happen after - “What’s in it for me” type of motivation - Incentives • Environmental events that attract or repel a person toward or away from initiating a particular course of action  Ex: learning theory - Consequences • Positive reinforcers vs. negative reinforcers  Positive reinforcer: add positive consequence  Negative reinforcer: take away negative consequence • Punishers  Positive: adding negative consequence  Negative: taking away something pleasant • Everything we do depends on if we are reinforced or punished  If rewarded, praised, etc. will continue to do behavior  If punished, will be less likely to be motivated to do that behavior - Rewards • Any offering from one person given to another person in exchange for his or her service or achievement • Types of reward:  Verbal/abstract rewards- praise  Ex: applause, warm smile  Tangible rewards- touch, see, feel, taste  Ex: trophy, diploma, money  Unexpected reward- no knowledge  Expected reward- if… then… Conditioning in real life - The pros & cons of Punishment • When punishment works • When punishment fails - The problems with reward • Hidden costs When punishment works - Immediately punishing a self-destructive behavior eliminates it - Milder punishments appear to work as well as harsh ones - Consistency is important When punishment fails - Administered inappropriately • Ex: corporal punishment - Anxiety, fear, or rage results • In some cases can become violent themselves • Ex: learn that if they don’t get their way, hit, punish, etc… - Effects are temporary - Hard to punish immediately - Conveys little information - May actually be reinforcing • Learn to punish, hit, etc… • Most individuals who abuse come from abusive families • Increase aggression- reinforce aggressive behaviors Types of reward - Verbal/Abstract Rewards: praise - Tangible Rewards: touch, see, feel, taste - Unexpected Reward: no knowledge - Expected Rewards: if …then.. Hidden costs of reward - External reinforcers (extrinsic) • Reinforcers that are not inherently related to the activity being reinforced  Rewards should be related to the activity for more motivation- promotes skill  Ex: if interest is painting, reward with crayons, easel, art-related things - Internal reinforcers (intrinsic) • Reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced  Rewards may undermine the internal motivation ex: competence you feel - External reinforcers may undermine internal reinforcers Why rewards can backfire - Loss of perceived autonomy • No longer ME, now it’s outside, someone else controlling rewards, how I do things - LOC becomes external - Shift from internal mastery to external gain • Competence in self to doing it for the money - Shift from person to environment - Shift from interest to control Benefits of reward - Motivates on uninteresting tasks (cannot undermine intrinsic motivation) • Can be motivational on tasks that are inherently extrinsic to begin with - Ex: Dressing/Brushing Teeth, homework, exercise Criticisms of reward - Reduces quality of performance • Will do enough just to get by, make quota - Interferes with learning - Interferes with long-term regulation • Monitoring skill development Cognitive evaluation theory - External events control and inform so can affect autonomy and competency - But depends on the purpose: • Control behavior or inform of competence  Can inform us on how we did- tell us that we did well  Trade-off – can control, but also a way to give positive feedback • Can be in a good way- dilemma! Control vs. inform - Praise: way it is communicated • Focus on informing their competency, not controlling them to external events • Can be altered to be motivational - Competition: mastery of skill vs. “winning” • Maintain intrinsic motivation • Winning- says that it is all about winning, not self performance, doing it for the team, external not self • Mastery of skill- maintain self performance, do not make all about winning Intrinsic motivation - Internally generated (natural spontaneous) - Not created by external events (internal) - But external events can facilitate the already existing intrinsic motivation • Ex: if already have spark within you, something extrinsic may bring out that intrinsic motivation in you  Ex: when going to university, may not want to go beforehand, but then go and see the value in it • Not necessarilyALL OR NONE- can be on a continuum Self-determination theory - 3 types of motivation: • Amotivation • Extrinsic • Intrinsic - These exist along a continuum of self-determination (autonomy, LOC) Types of extrinsic motivation - Self-determination theory posits that different types of motivation can be organized along a continuum of self-determination or perceived locus of causality External regulation **KNOW FOR EXAM** - Non-self determined motivation • Performing solely for a reward or satisfy external desire (material stuff) - Perform for reward • 100% motivation - External rewards regulate motivation (present= motivated) - Lack internalized willingness to perform activity for its own sake (ex: study because you have to) - These people show poor functioning / poor outcome Introjected regulation **KNOW FOR EXAM** - Taking in, but not accepting others’demands to think, feel, or behave somehow - Basically motivation out of guilt (I should…) - Lack of true internalization - Emotional reward replaces external reward • Emotional reward (proud) for performing other-defined good behavior, and emotionally punish (shame) for performing other-defined bad behavior - Monitors internal perceptions of society • Your perception of how society is evaluating you based on what you are doing - The introjected voice is motivator, not the self Identified regulation **KNOW FOR EXAM** - Self-determined motivation • Doing it more from your own will - Voluntary acceptance • Understanding of value - Behavior viewed important/valuable - Behavior freely chosen • Ex: extra work in math is important, then motivation to study is extrinsic but freely chosen - Internalize/ identify with behavioral values • Understand the value of the task, may become more motivated to do it- see importance • More likely to do it in the future Integrated regulation **KNOW FOR EXAM** - Highest form of extrinsic motivation - Identified values are integrated into the self (a developmental process) - The more people integrate internalized ways of thinking and behaving into the larger self- system, the more their extrinsically motivated actions become self-determined - Promotes positive outcomes: • Better psychological well-being • Better functioning (pro-social development) Self-determination theory ** LONGANSWER!!** - 3 types of motivation exist on a continuum (range) • Far left= amotivation (without motivation)  Person is neither intrinsically or extrinsically motivated (ex: drop-out student) • Middle= 4 types of extrinsic motivation  External regulation- not at all self-determined  Introjected regulation- somewhat self-determined  Identified regulation- mostly self-determined  Integrated regulation- fully self-determined • Far right side= intrinsic motivation  Reflects person’s full endorsement of self-determination and pertains to all those instances in which a person’s psychological needs generate a motivation to act Motivational strategies for uninteresting activities - Promote identified regulation • Get them to identify, increase motivation • Ex: wash hands for ice cream. They want ice cream, but not the personal value of washing their hands - Promote interest via challenge • Make it more interesting - Promote competence • Balance- FLOW - Preserve self-determination • Autonomy Mot
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