Class Notes (835,600)
Canada (509,275)
Psychology (2,710)
PSYC 3405 (35)
Lecture 3

Lecture 3.docx

22 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 3405
Brenda Baird

Lecture 3 ** FOR EXAM – important to know what each of the 4 Self determination theory  extrinsic means / what the continuum is ** Types of motivation - Intrinsic: motivation generated by an innate, internal need - Extrinsic: motivation generated by incentives and consequences of external events (environmental) Origins of intrinsic motivation - Inherent desire to engage one’s interest and to exercise and develop one’s capacities • Satisfies psychological needs – e.g. autonomy, competence, relatedness Benefits of intrinsic motivation - Benefits: • Persistence – the higher a person’s intrinsic motivation, the greater his or her persistence on that task • Creativity – the greater the interest, enjoyment, satisfaction, and challenge of the work itself, the higher people will be creative • Conceptual Understanding / High Quality Learning – flexible thinking, active information processing, learning conceptually  Going beyond just memorizing the material • Optimal Functioning and Well-Being – greater self actualization, subjective vitality, less anxiety and depression, greater self-esteem External regulation of motivation: incentives, consequences, and rewards - Environmentally created reason (ex: incentives or consequences) • Incentives – expectations, happen before event • Consequences – happen after - “What’s in it for me” type of motivation - Incentives • Environmental events that attract or repel a person toward or away from initiating a particular course of action  Ex: learning theory - Consequences • Positive reinforcers vs. negative reinforcers  Positive reinforcer: add positive consequence  Negative reinforcer: take away negative consequence • Punishers  Positive: adding negative consequence  Negative: taking away something pleasant • Everything we do depends on if we are reinforced or punished  If rewarded, praised, etc. will continue to do behavior  If punished, will be less likely to be motivated to do that behavior - Rewards • Any offering from one person given to another person in exchange for his or her service or achievement • Types of reward:  Verbal/abstract rewards- praise  Ex: applause, warm smile  Tangible rewards- touch, see, feel, taste  Ex: trophy, diploma, money  Unexpected reward- no knowledge  Expected reward- if… then… Conditioning in real life - The pros & cons of Punishment • When punishment works • When punishment fails - The problems with reward • Hidden costs When punishment works - Immediately punishing a self-destructive behavior eliminates it - Milder punishments appear to work as well as harsh ones - Consistency is important When punishment fails - Administered inappropriately • Ex: corporal punishment - Anxiety, fear, or rage results • In some cases can become violent themselves • Ex: learn that if they don’t get their way, hit, punish, etc… - Effects are temporary - Hard to punish immediately - Conveys little information - May actually be reinforcing • Learn to punish, hit, etc… • Most individuals who abuse come from abusive families • Increase aggression- reinforce aggressive behaviors Types of reward - Verbal/Abstract Rewards: praise - Tangible Rewards: touch, see, feel, taste - Unexpected Reward: no knowledge - Expected Rewards: if …then.. Hidden costs of reward - External reinforcers (extrinsic) • Reinforcers that are not inherently related to the activity being reinforced  Rewards should be related to the activity for more motivation- promotes skill  Ex: if interest is painting, reward with crayons, easel, art-related things - Internal reinforcers (intrinsic) • Reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced  Rewards may undermine the internal motivation ex: competence you feel - External reinforcers may undermine internal reinforcers Why rewards can backfire - Loss of perceived autonomy • No longer ME, now it’s outside, someone else controlling rewards, how I do things - LOC becomes external - Shift from internal mastery to external gain • Competence in self to doing it for the money - Shift from person to environment - Shift from interest to control Benefits of reward - Motivates on uninteresting tasks (cannot undermine intrinsic motivation) • Can be motivational on tasks that are inherently extrinsic to begin with - Ex: Dressing/Brushing Teeth, homework, exercise Criticisms of reward - Reduces quality of performance • Will do enough just to get by, make quota - Interferes with learning - Interferes with long-term regulation • Monitoring skill development Cognitive evaluation theory - External events control and inform so can affect autonomy and competency - But depends on the purpose: • Control behavior or inform of competence  Can inform us on how we did- tell us that we did well  Trade-off – can control, but also a way to give positive feedback • Can be in a good way- dilemma! Control vs. inform - Praise: way it is communicated • Focus on informing their competency, not controlling them to external events • Can be altered to be motivational - Competition: mastery of skill vs. “winning” • Maintain intrinsic motivation • Winning- says that it is all about winning, not self performance, doing it for the team, external not self • Mastery of skill- maintain self performance, do not make all about winning Intrinsic motivation - Internally generated (natural spontaneous) - Not created by external events (internal) - But external events can facilitate the already existing intrinsic motivation • Ex: if already have spark within you, something extrinsic may bring out that intrinsic motivation in you  Ex: when going to university, may not want to go beforehand, but then go and see the value in it • Not necessarilyALL OR NONE- can be on a continuum Self-determination theory - 3 types of motivation: • Amotivation • Extrinsic • Intrinsic - These exist along a continuum of self-determination (autonomy, LOC) Types of extrinsic motivation - Self-determination theory posits that different types of motivation can be organized along a continuum of self-determination or perceived locus of causality External regulation **KNOW FOR EXAM** - Non-self determined motivation • Performing solely for a reward or satisfy external desire (material stuff) - Perform for reward • 100% motivation - External rewards regulate motivation (present= motivated) - Lack internalized willingness to perform activity for its own sake (ex: study because you have to) - These people show poor functioning / poor outcome Introjected regulation **KNOW FOR EXAM** - Taking in, but not accepting others’demands to think, feel, or behave somehow - Basically motivation out of guilt (I should…) - Lack of true internalization - Emotional reward replaces external reward • Emotional reward (proud) for performing other-defined good behavior, and emotionally punish (shame) for performing other-defined bad behavior - Monitors internal perceptions of society • Your perception of how society is evaluating you based on what you are doing - The introjected voice is motivator, not the self Identified regulation **KNOW FOR EXAM** - Self-determined motivation • Doing it more from your own will - Voluntary acceptance • Understanding of value - Behavior viewed important/valuable - Behavior freely chosen • Ex: extra work in math is important, then motivation to study is extrinsic but freely chosen - Internalize/ identify with behavioral values • Understand the value of the task, may become more motivated to do it- see importance • More likely to do it in the future Integrated regulation **KNOW FOR EXAM** - Highest form of extrinsic motivation - Identified values are integrated into the self (a developmental process) - The more people integrate internalized ways of thinking and behaving into the larger self- system, the more their extrinsically motivated actions become self-determined - Promotes positive outcomes: • Better psychological well-being • Better functioning (pro-social development) Self-determination theory ** LONGANSWER!!** - 3 types of motivation exist on a continuum (range) • Far left= amotivation (without motivation)  Person is neither intrinsically or extrinsically motivated (ex: drop-out student) • Middle= 4 types of extrinsic motivation  External regulation- not at all self-determined  Introjected regulation- somewhat self-determined  Identified regulation- mostly self-determined  Integrated regulation- fully self-determined • Far right side= intrinsic motivation  Reflects person’s full endorsement of self-determination and pertains to all those instances in which a person’s psychological needs generate a motivation to act Motivational strategies for uninteresting activities - Promote identified regulation • Get them to identify, increase motivation • Ex: wash hands for ice cream. They want ice cream, but not the personal value of washing their hands - Promote interest via challenge • Make it more interesting - Promote competence • Balance- FLOW - Preserve self-determination • Autonomy Mot
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3405

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.