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Lecture 5

Lecture 5.docx

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PSYC 3405
Brenda Baird

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Lecture 5 Midterm - 40% - Long answers on test - 30 MC 1 point each - 6 short answers 5 points each - 4 long answers (1/2 a page) 10 points - Chapter 5, 7-10 Cognitive perspective on motivation: PLANS and GOALS - Plans - Goals - Implementation - Mental Simulations - Self-regulation Plans **GOOD LONGANSWER QUESTION** - Form mental reps of the ideal state (called template) - Compare to present state (knowledge) - Perceive mismatch (incongruity) - Formulate plan to remove incongruence (discrepancy is a motivational agent) - Engage the cognitive mechanism of TOTE • T = TEST • O = OPERATE • T = TEST • E = EXIT TOTE model **potential question** - Test (compare ideal to present) - Operate (ACT) • Operate on the environment to reduce the incongruence (difference that makes the present not the ideal present) - Test (retest) • See if you have reached a particular goal or state. If not, re-test - Exit (match found) • Ex: doing a paper, with a notion of what you want to submit. You will edit the paper, “is it what I want? Ideal template?”, if not, you do more revision, and then see if it works out this time. Once it is acceptable, and have removed the incongruence, you submit it Discrepancy Present --> ideal - Involves corrective motivation • Decision-making process:  Change the plan (maybe the plan isn’t good. Maybe the bar is too high), the behavior, or forget it - Involves emotion with rate of progress • Present to ideal as expected (no emotion) • Present to ideal slow (anxiety, frustration) • Present to ideal fast (hope, excitement) Types of discrepancy: role of feedback - Discrepancy reduction (reactive) • Feedback from environment (boss, teacher) • External agent sets standard for comparison • CORRECTIVE- someone telling you “you need to do this to get here” - Discrepancy creation (proactive) • Person sets higher goal to pursue • Feed-forward (looks to future state) • INVOLVES GOAL SETTING Goals - Does setting goals enhance performance? - Type of goal is a key factor • Difficult (linear) – creates energy  The harder the goal, the more motivated you’ll be. But if it’s too hard, it will go back down • Specificity (vague vs. structure) – directs energy  How specific are the directions? Ex: boss gives goals to attain, but sometimes they are very vague  Structure makes you more motivated • Feedback +/- (discrepancy-creation or discrepancy-reduction) – satisfaction vs. dissatisfaction • Acceptance (forced/credibility) - But… enhancing performance or motivation? • Employers try to make people obedient, rather than set goals. “My way or the highway” - Do goals increase motivation? • Depends on…:  Goal proximity (affects persistence/determination)  Personal strivings (involve the personality)  Something you want to be. Ex: less shy  Personal growth (autonomy, competence, relatedness [sense of connection with people])  If only looking for extrinsic things, the goal will have less motivation  Subjective well-being (psychological satisfaction) - So, goals that involve… INTRINSIC MOTIVATION - “Subjective well-being is more about what one strives for than what one actually attains” - Popularity Autonomy - Award Competence - Money Relatedness - Less satisfaction Satisfaction - Extrinsic attainment is devoid of personal meaning Implementation intentions - Mental stimulation: “visualize success” • Ex: visualize your goal. Focus on this goal • Myth. Makes you kind of not motivated - But goal-directed thinking is not goal-directed behavior! • Thinking of goal, but not process needed to get to the goal - Focusing on the goal can undermine goal attainment • If you focus on the end result, nothing is happening - Focus on action • Focus on the doing • Distinction between content and process • Shifts focus from wishful thinking to goal-directed planning • Don’t think “I can see myself walking across the stage getting my degree”. Focus on “How am I going to get the degree? What steps?” - If you don’t plan for distractions, it will throw you off Goal pursuit - Getting started • Set up environment-behavior contingencies • “Create a habit”, so behavior becomes automatic  Essential  15 pounds after Christmas lacks implementation  15 pounds now, exercise, eat well, etc…  has implementation - Persisting and completing • Plan for distraction  What if ___ happens at this time? Need to know things can go wrong. • Persist, despite distraction  If they happen, persist and get back on the horse. Ex: exercise to lose weight and get in shape, but friend comes for a week, and you aren’t doing as well to get in shape. Once they leave, GET BACK ON THAT DIET! • Resume once distraction is removed Self-regulation (metacognitive monitoring) - Involves mental evaluation of progress • Is my plan working? - Involves evaluation of effort to attain goals • How much effort do I have to put in? Not enough? Too much? - Involves forethought, action, reflection • Before plan (forethought), action (do the plan), reflection (revising plan) Self-regulation **potential long answer question** - 1. Forethought • Create the habit • Set goal, plan strategy • How will you implement it? Possible distracters? What could happen? - 2. Performance • Start plan/action • Receive feedback (difficulties, obstacles?) - 3. Reflection • Monitor plan • Think on plan • Revise plan - Self-regulation is both self-observational and a self-evaluation process - Forethought - Performance: what are the things that are distracting you? - Reflect: change the plan. Do it a different time or day when the distractions are not present Putting it all together - Specify the objective to be accomplished - Define goal difficulty - Define goal specificity - Specify the time span until performance will be assessed - Check on goal acceptance - Discuss goal attainment strategies - Create implementation intentions - Provide performance feedback Motivations for personal control - Expectancies • Efficacy vs. outcome - Mastery vs. helplessness - Learned helplessness - Reactance theory - Hope Efficacy vs. outcome - Person efficacy: will have high, medium, or low efficacy - Outcome: get their degree Self-efficacy - Different from ability (skills) • Can have lots of skills, like piano playing, or hockey… but self-efficacy is the BELIEF that you can generate these skills when things start to fall apart - Involves judgement of capacity to cope under trying situations, stress - Agenerative capacity - Opposite is doubt Sources of self-efficacy - History of personal behavior • Strong experiences where something has happened and you fell apart/ managed to turn it ar
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