Lecture 6 Children with Intellectual disabilities .doc

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11 Apr 2012
Department
Course
Chapter 6
Children with intellectual disabilities
What is the AAMR definition of intellectual disabilities?
significant subaverage intellectual functioning
deficits in adaptive behavior
manifested during the developmental years
A child is not considered intellectually disabled unless they score below what on a
standardized test of mental ability?
70
that is three or more deviation away below the mean
What is the AAMR definition of Adaptive behavior?
the degree and efficiency with which an individual meets:
The standards
personal independence
social responsibility expected of a particular age group
What are some examples if adaptive skills?
communication
self care
health and safety
social skills
home living
community use
functional academics
What is the AAMR’s definition of developmental period?
from conception to 18th birthday
What is the IQ level of mild retardation?
55 to 70
What is the IQ level of moderate ?
40 to 55
What is the IQ level of severe?
25 to 40
What is the IQ level of profound?
Below 25
What is the classification of needs in mild retardation?
intermittent
What is the classification of needs in moderate?
limited
What is the classification of needs in severe?
extensive
What is the classification of needs in profound?
pervasive
What are the characteristics of a child with mild mental retardation with an IQ level
of 55-70?
no signs of disease of injury
many not id until start school
educated in public schools settings
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elementary: reading, writing, arithmetic
adequate social, personal and communication skills
What are the characteristics of a child with moderate mental retardation with an IQ
level of 44-55?
limited intellectual abilities
delay during preschool years
limited academic achievement
problems in abstracting and generalizing
can attain self help skills able to work routine jobs
30% have down syndrome
What are the characteristics of a child that has severe mental retardation?
IQ 25-40
additional handicapping conditions
poor motor development
poor speech
sensory impairments, seizures
inadequate social skills
behavioural and psychiatric disorders
What are the characteristics of a child with profound metal retardation?
may not be able to care for personal needs
limited or no independent mobility
what is the prevalence of metal retardation?
1-3% of general population
80-85% of all mental retardation are MILD MENTALLY RETARDED
What is the etiology of intellectual disabilities
prenatal causes:
Example : chromosomal disorders, environmental factors
Postnatal causes:
Example: head injuries, infections ( encephalitis, meningitis)
What is the percentage of cases where the cause is not known?
50%
What are the presumed causes?
psychological disadvantage/ deprivation
What is the most common chromosomal abnormality leading to mental retardation?
Down syndrome
What is the prevalence of down syndrome?
occurrence is 1 in 1000 live births
What are the 3 major types of Down syndrome?
Trisomy 21
Translocation
Mosacism
What is Trisomy 21?
21st pair of chromosome has 3 chromosomes instead of 2
What is Translocation?
only part of chromosome 21 is present in triplicate
What is Mosacism ?
faulty distribution of chromosome in later cell division
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