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Lecture 4

Set 4 February 3 Notes in Word.doc

Course Code
PSYC 3604
Chris Motz

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February 3
This is the beginning of the Midterm Two material
Goals for today’s class…
Chapter 5: Treatment & Therapy
Biological, Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Behavioural, Cognitive and Cognitive-
Behavioural approaches
One example of research on therapy
One example of family therapy
From the text…
Chapter 5: Treatment
What is the basis of each form of therapy? What makes it unique from the others?
What are the strengths/limitations of the various forms of therapy? When do they
work best?
What are the Interpersonal & Social Approaches to therapy?
What should a therapist be aware of when treating children?
Readings (not on exam – just for interest)
Four short readings – great insight into therapy and the mind of the therapist
Joan Wheelis – therapy with a borderline patient
Elizabeth Owens – working with a boy with OCD
John Campo – using behavioural therapy to treat a boy with a somatoform
Robert Akeret – following up on a client
Biological Treatments
Follows a medical model approach in recognizing and treating physiological/neurological
issues underlying mental illness
An important component of treatment – as there is often an underlying biological
component that cannot be addressed by “talking therapies” alone
However, medical treatment alone is usually not enough to treat mental illness – thus,
must be combined with a therapy that treats the person
Biological Treatments
Phytotherapy (herbal medicines)
Electroconvulsive therapy
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stumulation
Psychopharmacology – the study of the effects of drugs on psychological disorders
Many psychoactive drugs (behaviour-affecting drugs) have an influence on the effects of

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Agonists – drugs that facilitate the effects of a particular neurotransmitter
can stimulate the production and quantity of N, the release of N, take the place of
N (binding to the post-synaptic receptor), prevent the reuptake of N
Antagonists – drugs the inhibit the effects of a particular neurotransmitter
Can block the synthesis of N, destroy the N (before release), block the release of
N, block the binding of the N with the post-synaptic receptor
Receptor Blockers – bind to the post-synaptic receptors without activating them
(thereby blocking the N).
A. Antipsychotic Drugs – also called “neuroleptics” – a group of drugs that can be used to
treat psychosis (impaired thoughts and perceptions), schizophrenia, mania and delusional
disorder – also have an effect as a “mood stabilizer”
Work by blocking dopamine receptors (D2) in the brain (an Antagonist) – thus,
dopamine that is released is not as effective
B. Antidepressant Drugs – four classes of drugs have been developed for the treatment of
affective disorders
1. Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitors – these drugs increase the level of
neurotransmitters (i.e. norepinephrine) by inhibiting the action of monoamine
2. Tricyclic Antidepressants – inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine, dopamine and
B. Antidepressant Drugs continued
3. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) – (i.e. Prozac) – block the
reuptake of serotonin (therefore an Agonist)
C. Antimanic (mood-stabilizers)
4. Lithium – a metalic ion – effects are still a mystery – induces a calming effect in
people suffering from mania or depression
D. Antianxiety Drugs – three classes
1. Barbiturates – suppress the nervous system (very serious side effects)
2. Benzodiazepines – (i.e. Valium) – have an agonist effect on the GABA receptors
(facilitate the binding of GABA to the post-synaptic receptors) – also called
minor tranquilizers” – hence, also falls into the “sedative-hypnotic drug”
3. Serotonin Agonists – (i.e. Buspirone) facilitate the binding of serotonin with the
post-synaptic receptors
Psychodynamic Approach to Therapy
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