PAPM 2000 Febuary 4, 2014.docx
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Department
Public Affairs and Policy Management
Course
PAPM 2000
Professor
Graeme Auld
Semester
Winter

Description
Federal service • Politics-Administration dichotomy • Public service o Think about this in relation to federalism, mapping forward to discussing implementation and how the structure of government is indicative o Think of government as one big effort to do one agenda o Implementation about the action of organizing activities to get stuff done • Departments are all about organization o Political and administrative is used for cover for each other, distinction between politics and administration is a fundamental component of how our government works • Relationship hinges on division of labour between the elected officials (politicians) and the appointed members of the bureaucracy (public servants) • Elected officials make the political decisions o Choose priorities, decide among policy options, etc… • Appointed officials take orders o Assist the elected officials with formulating, implementing and evaluating policies and administer programs • Assist the officials on informing people o Once a decision is taken, then the role is to implement that and administer the policy • As well as evaluate how the policy is doing as it is rolling out  Central to the administration is accountability • Idea that the elected official can be held accountable by the electorate by the decisions that are unpopular, therefore they should be making decisions Ministerial responsibility • Political level: o Minister is responsible for all the official acts of the public servants under their supervision Ddeputy minister • Administrative level: o Essentially the head of the administrative part of the department, oversees the day-to-day administrative activities o "Primary duty of the DM is to create the conditions under which the Minister and PM can provide the best possible government" (146) o Implements any decisions that are made • Porvides advice to minister • Has a role in formulating and implementing policy • Is hired and fired by the PM (ie. Has less security that other public servants) • Needs to develop working relationships with interest groups and citizens in policy area without "capture" Conventions of Public Service Behaviour • Neutrality o DM is non-partisan o Politically neutral in service to the Minister • Anonymity • Politics-administration dichotomy o DM is supposed to provide advice - there is a line between providing advice and actually making decisions • Loyalty o To Minister, profession and to the parliament • There is the idea that public servants are supposed to be serving the institution of government and facilitation of public interest • Difficult to put in practice -> strict division between administration and politics Politics vs. Administration • Impossible to draw a clear line between politicians' and bureaucrats' responsibilities • The line is re-negotiated within and between different governments • But, Whitaker argues - politicians must be the ones ultimately responsible for policy • Not a statement of fact, but a relevant and important guide o People have argued that although the line is grey, the way the system is set up, politicians are supposed to be responsible for policy, is not a reality or fact that describes how the system works, it is an ethical guide that is supposed to guide the way in which behaviours are undertaken with a rule based system with no discretion Origin of the "Dichotomy" • Desire to banish partisan politics from appointment and practices of public servants • Political patronage common in US/Canada 19th and 20th centuries (still exists for some senior appointments) • "progressive" movement a response to this • Canada o Civil Service Act of 1918 (later Public Service Act) • Now have a federal public service • Meant to be on basis of qualifications and the expertise of the individuals that are hired on o Introduced merit principle, written exams for entry and specific qualification for particular positions • Even if someone has all the skills
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