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RELI 1710 (41)
Zeba Crook (41)

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Carleton University
RELI 1710
Zeba Crook

End of the period of the rightly guided caliphs Uthman was caliph for so long that his family had taken on the position that the caliphate was theirs to keep. In the beginning of original caliphate, no one wanted family to take over this position (Ali’s family) Within 20 years, community had changed their minds (or Uthman’s family did) Mu’awiyah vs ali. -> battle! Leads to ali’s death Karijites=ali’s followers Instead of agreeing to battle, he stopped following the will of god=worthy of execution. Then was assassinated by own followers Effect was that Mu’awiyah could regroup in Syria, and ali’s troops withdrew in bagdad -2 entities growing stronger but not meeting -fundamental point where suni and shi’a split -has to do with who is the rightful successor of Muhammad Islam splits!  Hasan (Ali’s son, grandson of Muhammad) – powerless ◦ Loses Caliphate to Mu’awiyah when Hasan’s own wife is ordered by Mu’awiyah to poison him. Leave’s his brother Husayn  Rise of the Umayyad tribe  Skirmishes between supporters of Ali and Umayyads Originally Hasan vs. Mu’awiyah, then Hasan’s brother Hysayn vs. Mu’awiyah’s son Yazid -tension comes to a pinnacle When Husayn travels to Karbala promised more forces will meet them there, but they don’t. So Husayn has a small army and is decimated by Yazid. The Shi’a lose this battle. Yazid takes Husayn’s head and shames the family by prancing Husayn’s head around on a pole through Saudi Arabia. Makes him many enemies. This angers Yazid and wants them to submit to his power, so he attacks many cities and catapults them. One of these cities is Mecca. The kabah has to be re-built. Karbala is where suni and shia separate. Suni’s follow rightly guided caliph’s, and shia follow caliphs starting with ali (bloodline of prophet). Something powerful about bloodline because of Muhammad’s special connection to god (immalms)  Battle of Karbala in 680 –Husayn (Ali’s last surviving son) vs Yazid  Shi’at Ali = Party of Ali = Shi’a / Shiite  Umayyad Dynasty represent Sunni Because of Karbala, martyrdom becomes important part of shia. Shi’a Islam  Shi’at Ali – Party of Ali ◦ Caliphate should have always stayed in the family of Muhammad  Sunni: Rightly Guided Caliphs ◦ Sunnis: caliph and imam  Shi’a: Imam ◦ divinely mandated leader Sunni (small i imam) imam and Rabbi very much alike. Have a family, lead prayer, but must be educated so can comment intelligently Imam in Shi’a is a descendant of Muhammad. Is divinely mandated because of bloodline ties with prophet. Ali is the guardian of god (third position of shahaddah) in Shi’a. Sunni shahaddah is only 2 parts (Muhammad and god) Shi’a islam is also split. Not just one form. Split on question of progression of Imam’s.  Ali – fourth Caliph, first Imam  All Shi’a agree on the legitimacy of the first four Imams ◦ Ali, Hasan, Husayn, Ali-Zayn Dispute at 5 Imam. th 5 Imam: Zayad vs. al-Baqir  Zaydis: Shi’a sect who followed Zayad as 5 Imam th th  Rest of Shi’a follows al-Baqir as 5 Imam He is the oldest. The most obvious successor to the father (Ali-Zayn). His mother is the granddaughter of Ali. Zaydis leads a war, so some say most important to rule next. Osme say al-Baqir is better because he is more blood connected Breakaway group. Followers of al-Baqir don’t dispute 6 Imam, but dispute over his sons and there is another split. th 7 Iman: Ismail vs. Musa  Isma’ilis: Shi’a sect that traces Imamate though Isma’il’s sons  Also called “Seveners”  Rest of Shi’a follows from Musa Jafar appoints his son Ismail to be Imam. Makes sense as he is the oldest. Problem arises when he dies before Jafar does. Options to appoint new successor, or go to Ismail’s son. 2 groups separate. Those who think Imamship can’t be taken away from Ismail think should be passed to his son. Called seveners or Isma’ilis. Rest will follow jafar’s next appointed son Musa. Imams 8-11 happen. Then get to 12 and there is another separation. th If people are not Zayadis or Isma’ilis, then they are of the 12 imam separation (Imami/Twelvers) Is born around 869. Disappears at age of 5 (874). Will he come back, what will we do now, how will we communicate with God now? -Hiding in a cave, he will survive to this day and come back to rule his community because there is something mysterious about him. Knows as occultation (darkness) -Still communicating to community through Babs (gates). Special figures. When this period ends after 4 babs. When things when for occultation to great occultation. th At end of time, judgement day, 2 figures will return to judge humanity. Jesus and the 12 Imam will come back to judge humanity. They haven’t died. Muhammad can’t return Stronger sense of messianic hopes than sunni’s. More messianic claimants.  Greater and Lesser Occultation  Mahdi = Messiah  Ayatolla Khomeini (some followers claim he is the Messiah)  Twelvers also called Imami Shi’a  Shi’a make up ~ 20% of Muslims Back to sunni islam: Umayyad Dynasty: 661-750 CE  Islam spreads to ◦ Spain in the West ◦ Iran and Pakistan in the East ◦ Stopped from taking France in 732  691 CE: Dome of the Rock on the Temple mount in Jerusalem was built Umayyad’s are an extention of the urash? By 750, have practically reached full extent. In 150 years of death of prophet, the empire and dynasty reach pretty much full extension Mosque is built around a stone on the inside. Dome of the rock on the temple mount in Jeruselum.  Damascus -- Umayyad capital (where Mu’awiyah based himself)  Islam spreads by military expansion, trade, and teachings Abbasid Dynasty: 750- 1258  Abbasids: competing clan  Massacred Umayyads in 750, took control  Establish Baghdad as capital Deci
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