End of the period of the rightly guided caliphs
Uthman was caliph for so long that his family had taken on the position that the caliphate was
theirs to keep.
In the beginning of original caliphate, no one wanted family to take over this position (Ali’s
Within 20 years, community had changed their minds (or Uthman’s family did)
Mu’awiyah vs ali. -> battle! Leads to ali’s death
Instead of agreeing to battle, he stopped following the will of god=worthy of execution. Then was
assassinated by own followers
Effect was that Mu’awiyah could regroup in Syria, and ali’s troops withdrew in bagdad
-2 entities growing stronger but not meeting
-fundamental point where suni and shi’a split
-has to do with who is the rightful successor of Muhammad
Hasan (Ali’s son, grandson of Muhammad) – powerless
◦ Loses Caliphate to Mu’awiyah when Hasan’s own wife is ordered by Mu’awiyah
to poison him. Leave’s his brother Husayn
Rise of the Umayyad tribe
Skirmishes between supporters of Ali and Umayyads
Originally Hasan vs. Mu’awiyah, then Hasan’s brother Hysayn vs. Mu’awiyah’s son Yazid
-tension comes to a pinnacle
When Husayn travels to Karbala promised more forces will meet them there, but they don’t. So
Husayn has a small army and is decimated by Yazid. The Shi’a lose this battle. Yazid takes
Husayn’s head and shames the family by prancing Husayn’s head around on a pole through
Saudi Arabia. Makes him many enemies. This angers Yazid and wants them to submit to his
power, so he attacks many cities and catapults them. One of these cities is Mecca. The kabah
has to be re-built. Karbala is where suni and shia separate. Suni’s follow rightly guided caliph’s,
and shia follow caliphs starting with ali (bloodline of prophet). Something powerful about
bloodline because of Muhammad’s special connection to god (immalms)
Battle of Karbala in 680 –Husayn (Ali’s last surviving son) vs Yazid Shi’at Ali = Party of Ali = Shi’a / Shiite
Umayyad Dynasty represent Sunni
Because of Karbala, martyrdom becomes important part of shia.
Shi’at Ali – Party of Ali
◦ Caliphate should have always stayed in the family of Muhammad
Sunni: Rightly Guided Caliphs
◦ Sunnis: caliph and imam
◦ divinely mandated leader
Sunni (small i imam) imam and Rabbi very much alike. Have a family, lead prayer, but must be
educated so can comment intelligently
Imam in Shi’a is a descendant of Muhammad. Is divinely mandated because of bloodline ties
Ali is the guardian of god (third position of shahaddah) in Shi’a. Sunni shahaddah is only 2 parts
(Muhammad and god)
Shi’a islam is also split. Not just one form. Split on question of progression of Imam’s.
Ali – fourth Caliph, first Imam
All Shi’a agree on the legitimacy of the first four Imams
◦ Ali, Hasan, Husayn, Ali-Zayn
Dispute at 5 Imam.
5 Imam: Zayad vs. al-Baqir
Zaydis: Shi’a sect who followed Zayad as 5 Imam th
Rest of Shi’a follows al-Baqir as 5 Imam
He is the oldest. The most obvious successor to the father (Ali-Zayn). His mother is the
granddaughter of Ali.
Zaydis leads a war, so some say most important to rule next. Osme say al-Baqir is better
because he is more blood connected Breakaway group.
Followers of al-Baqir don’t dispute 6 Imam, but dispute over his sons and there is another split.
7 Iman: Ismail vs. Musa
Isma’ilis: Shi’a sect that traces Imamate though Isma’il’s sons
Also called “Seveners”
Rest of Shi’a follows from Musa
Jafar appoints his son Ismail to be Imam. Makes sense as he is the oldest. Problem arises
when he dies before Jafar does. Options to appoint new successor, or go to Ismail’s son. 2
groups separate. Those who think Imamship can’t be taken away from Ismail think should be
passed to his son. Called seveners or Isma’ilis. Rest will follow jafar’s next appointed son Musa.
Imams 8-11 happen. Then get to 12 and there is another separation.
If people are not Zayadis or Isma’ilis, then they are of the 12 imam separation
Is born around 869. Disappears at age of 5 (874). Will he come back, what will we do now, how
will we communicate with God now?
-Hiding in a cave, he will survive to this day and come back to rule his community
because there is something mysterious about him. Knows as occultation (darkness)
-Still communicating to community through Babs (gates). Special figures.
When this period ends after 4 babs. When things when for occultation to great occultation.
At end of time, judgement day, 2 figures will return to judge humanity. Jesus and the 12 Imam
will come back to judge humanity. They haven’t died. Muhammad can’t return
Stronger sense of messianic hopes than sunni’s. More messianic claimants.
Greater and Lesser Occultation
Mahdi = Messiah
Ayatolla Khomeini (some followers claim he is the Messiah)
Twelvers also called Imami Shi’a
Shi’a make up ~ 20% of Muslims
Back to sunni islam:
Umayyad Dynasty: 661-750 CE Islam spreads to
◦ Spain in the West
◦ Iran and Pakistan in the East
◦ Stopped from taking France in 732
691 CE: Dome of the Rock on the Temple mount in Jerusalem was built
Umayyad’s are an extention of the urash?
By 750, have practically reached full extent. In 150 years of death of prophet, the empire and
dynasty reach pretty much full extension
Mosque is built around a stone on the inside. Dome of the rock on the temple mount in
Damascus -- Umayyad capital (where Mu’awiyah based himself)
Islam spreads by military expansion, trade, and teachings
Abbasid Dynasty: 750- 1258
Abbasids: competing clan
Massacred Umayyads in 750, took control
Establish Baghdad as capital