RELI 1710 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Baal Shem Tov, Bar Kokhba Revolt, Simon Bar Kokhba
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Abbasaid Empire: Created in 750 of the Christian Era, named after Muhammad’s youngest
uncle, Abbas ibn Abd Al-Muttalib. Changed the capital to Madinat al-Salam ( City of Peace ).
Mongols conquered it and it destabilised in 1258.
Abu Bakr: Father in law of Muhammad, rules from 632 to 634. A rightly first guided caliph.
Abu Talib: Leader of the Hashim, Quresh clan, Muhammad’s uncle, 549 – 619. Allowed
Muhammad a job in his trading company.
Abraham: Father of Isaac, ancestor of the Jews, and Ishmael, ancestor of the Muslims.
Commanded by God to purify his house in Mecca. God calls him to leave his land to look for
the promised land. No clear birthplace, placed at about the second millennium BCE.
Acculturation: Describes the process of cultural and psychological change that occurs as
two cultures meet.
Aisha: Called mother of believers, one of the wives of Muhammad, married at 9 years old.
Continued his message throughout the rain of the Caliphs. Led a battle on her camel and
Al Baqir: The 5th and 4th imam, Revered by Shia Muslims and respected by Sunni Muslims
for his knowledge and Islamic knowledge, leading jurist in Medina. 676 – 733
Al Ghazali: Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic of Persian decent. Single
most influential Muslim after the prophet. Brought Sufism back into the orthodox Muslim
path. Lived when the Muslim Ummah was approaching 500 years.
Ali: Cousin and son in law of the prophet. Chosen as the 4th caliph, assassinated, leadership
disputed. His sons were both assassinated, and that started the faction the Shi’ites. Reign
from 656 – 661
Angelican: a tradition within Christianity comprising of the Church of England. Comes from
a Latin term meaning English Church. Founded by scriptures, and the traditions of the
Antiochus Epiphanes IV: Ruled the Seleucid empire from 175 BC – 164 BC. Son of
Antiochus III The Great. Near conquest of Egypt started the rebellion of the Jewish
Maccabees. First king to use divine epithets on coins.
Apostles: After his resurrection Jesus sent 11 of them to spread his teachings. Resulted in
the Canon, accepted sacred writings of the New Testament, the Apostle’s creed, and the
structure of clergy leadership.
Archbishop of Canterbury: The senior bishop of the Church of England, symbolic head
worldwide of the Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Canterbury.
Arius: Christian priest in Alexandria, Egypt. He was of Libyan origins. Taught about the
nature of the God Heads which emphasize a father’s divinity over that of his son. Primary
topic of Council of Nicea, convened by Constantine in 325 AD.
Asia Minor: Modern turkey, denotes the westernmost protrusion of Asia.
Ashkenazi: trace origins back to the tribe of Israelites of Canaan in the middle east. Names
comes from Ashkenaz, the first son of Gomer.
Assyrians: People from Assyria, a Semitic Akkadian kingdom position on the north Tigris
river. Late 25th to early 24th century BC. Came to rule a number of powerful empires.
Athanasius: 20th bishop of Alexandria , lasted for 45 years, a renowned Christian theologian
, exiled for 17 years by 5 different roman emperors. Remembered for his role in the conflict
Augustine: A father of the church whose writings are considered very influential in Christian
philosophy. He was a Bishop of Hippo.
Ayatollah Khomeini: Iranian religious leader and politician, leader of the 1979 Iranian
revolution. Supreme leader of Iran til death.
Benedict XVI: Leader of the catholic church, pope and sovereign of the Vatican between
2005 and 2013.
Baal : northwest Semitic title meaning “master” or “lord”
Asherah: Semitic mother goddess appearing in ancient sources of Akkadian writings.
Baal Shem Tov: a mystical rabbi considered to be the founder of Hasidic Judaism. Name
meaning Master of the Good Name.
Battle of Badr: Fought 623 CE in the Hejaz region of Arabia. Decisive victory due to divine
intervention. Killed several Quraishi leaders by breaking the Meccan lines. Signalled that
there’s a new power in the Arabian Peninsula. Strengthening Muhammad’s position as
Battle of Karbalah: 61 AH, in Karbalah, present day Iraq. Hussein refused to recognize
Yazid, a small group of Hussein supporters versus an army detachment of Yazid fought
ending in Hussein’s death. Considered a Martyr for Shi’ite islam.
Battle of Sifin: 657 CE. Occurred during the first Fitna. Fought on the banks of the
Euphrates river, in what is now Syria. The battle was indecisive, weakened Ali’s position
and did not resolve the tensions in the empire.
Battle of Uhud: Fought in 625 AH fought at the valley located in front of mount Uhud in
northwestern Arabia. Between Muhammad’s Medina and ibn Harb of Mecca. The second
battle between the muslims and meccans. A mistake by the archers almost caused the
Muslims the battle causing them to retreat up the mountain, Meccan’s declared victory.
Muhammad badly injured in the battle.
Babs: a religious movement from Persia from 1844 to 1852 , title means gates.
Babylonians: Ancient Akkadian speaking Semitic nation based in current day Iraq. 1894
BC emergence . Rival state of Assyria.
Bar Kochba Revolt: Third major revolt of the Jews against Roman Empire. Last of Jewish-
Roman Wars. Simon Bar Kochba was commander. 132 – 136 CE, the Roman victory saw
the banning of Jews from Jerusalem. Aftermath of the war differentiated Christianity from
Judaism as a distinct religion.
Caliph: Ruler of the Islamic Ummah, head of state of a Caliphate, derived from word
meaning successor or representative.
John Calvin: A French theologian and pastor during the Protestant reformation. He was a
principle figure in development of Calvinism. He was influenced by Augestinian traditions.
Led him to expand sovereignty of god in looking for human salvation from eternal
Canaan: a Semitic speaking religion in current day Israel, Palestine and Lebanon. 4th
millennium BC. Canaanite nations of the bronze and iron ages are mention in the bible.
Chalcedon: ancient maritime town in Asia. Now distinct city of Istanbul. Greek name
meaning “New Town”.
Christotokos: Greek title of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Means Christ-bearer.
Circumcision: Surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis. Taken up by jews as a physical
sign of their covenant with god.
Conservative Judaism: Arose in the early 1900, modern stream of Ashkenazi Judaism.
Developed as a reaction to more liberal views taken by reformed Judaism. Means that Jews
should try to conserve Jewish tradition rather than abandon then.
Constantine: Roman emperor from 306 to 337, first Roman emperor to be converted to
Christianity. Tolerance for all religions in empire.
Constantinople: Founded in 330 AD, it was the capital city of the Eastern Roman Empire,
Latin and Ottoman empire.
Covenant : an alliance or agreement, between God and humanity or religious communities.
Crucifixion: painful method of execution, tied or nailed to a cross, left to hang until dead.
Abolished by Constantine I in 337.
Crusades: Religiously motivated military campaigns to restore Christianity to holy areas
near Jerusalem. Ordered by pope Urban II , conducted between 1095 and 1291 against
muslims in the Levant.
Cyrus: Founder of the Achaemenid empire. Eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia.
He respected the religions and customs of the lands that he conquered. Recognized for his
achievements in human rights, politics and military strategy. Defined national identity of Iran.
Cyril: Christian missionary born in the 9th century among the Slavic People. Devised the
Glagolitic alphabet, writing Apostles to the Slavs which contributed to the cultural
development of the Slavs. Pope John Paul II declared him co-patron saint of Europe.
Damascus: nicknamed City of Jasmine, Capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 – 750.
First settled in the second millennium BC.
Dar al-Harb: House of war. House of the west. A country where muslim law is not in force
in the matter of worship.
David: Second king of the United Kingdom of Israel. An ancestor of Jesus. Considered to
be a prophet and king of a nation. Righteous.
Dead Sea: historically a place of Refuge for King David. It is a salt lake bordering Jordan to
the East and Israel to the West.
Dhikr: The remembrance of god. Islamic devotional act typically involving the recitation of
the Names of God. Silent Prayer.
Diet of Worms: an imperial diet, or assembly, of the Holy Roman Empire held in Worms,
Germany. January to May 1521. Effects of Protestant reformations.
Diaspora Judaism: the historical dispersion of Jews from the Kingdom of Judah. Began in
the 6th century BCE due to conquest of the Kingdom by Babylon and the destruction of the
first temple. Three groups of Jews, Babylon, Egypt, Judaea.
Divided Monarchy: The split of the United kingdom into Israel in the North and Judah in
the south. 921 BCE.
Docetism: the doctrine according to which the phenomenon of Christ, was just mere
semblance without true reality.
Dome of the Rock: A shrine located on the temple mount in the old city of Jerusalem.
Completed in 291 CE, it’s been refurbished multiple times. Religious significance is due to
the rock at the centre, known as the foundation stone.
Ecumenism: initiatives aimed at greater Christian unity or co-operation. Single church.
Derived from Greek, “The whole inhabited word”. Used for reference to the Roman Empire.
Edict of Milan: Constantine I and Licinius, controlling the Roman Empire and the Balkans
met in Milan and agreed to treat Christians benevolently.
Elijah Muhammad: The African- American religious leader who led the nation of Islam
between 1934 until 1975.
Episcopalians: Members of the Anglican church use this word meaning having bishops in
Excommunication: religious censure used to deprive, suspend or limit membership in a
religious community. Like in the Catholic church.
Exodus: Story of the enslavement of the Israelites in Egypt following the death of Joseph,
their departure under the leadership of Moses, the revelations at Sinai, and their
wanderings up to the borders of Canaan.