Class 5 February 5, 2018 - More Models of Community Development
Objective: to deepen understanding of different approaches to community work by looking at some case
studies. Mid-term evaluation
Moyer, Bill. Doing Democracy: The MAP Model for Organizing Social Movements. New Society
Publishers. 2001. ISBN 0-0866571-418-5. pages 21-41.
In this chapter, the author discusses the 4 roles of activists that are needed in social movements
in order to be successful.
o The citizen is the individual who identifies the key issue in society, in order to advocate
for change. By involving the majority of the public, the citizen gives legitimacy to the
movement. This role is against violence and additionally attempts to discredit
Citizens can be ineffective if they are nave or super patriotic.
o The rebels promote the democratic process, where it is noticed be inadequate. They
identify any controversial actions, and make other citizens aware of what is happening
in their community. The rebels are key, as they push to get their issue on to the political
Rebels can be ineffective if they become military radicals and put their
arrogance ahead of the cause.
o The change agent is there to support the involvement and promote citizen based
democracy when there is large number of individuals involved. They are the counter
power to the initial powerholders.
The change agent can be ineffective if they have tunnel vision towards one
single issue or only promote a minor reform.
o The reformer is who gets the issue resolved through parliamentary and legal efforts.
They mobilize the movement and nurture other grassroots activists.
A reformer is ineffective when its dominator style begins to undermine the
The author puts special attention to what is called a negative rebel. They challenge
authorities, structural arrangements, decisions and policies as they believe themselves to be the
margins of society and the social movement they are fighting for. There are 6 types of negative
rebels; these include, the true believers, the hard-left, the personal rebels, nave followers,
personal opportunist and agents provocateurs.
The reason why negative rebels make bad revolutionaries is because they often alienate the
public. They reduce the movements legitimacy and power and case movement burnout and
dissipation. Lastly, they legitimize fascists tactics. In order to counter this, the mature activists
must play all roles of activism effectively or be allied with other activists who are playing those
other roles. Their act must base on positive emotions and have a