Socialization and Social interaction
Oct. 3, 2013
– Religious Organizations
• Primary socialization
• Secondary socialization
• Gender socialization
• Total institution
• Charles Cooley
– Lookingglass self
• George Herbert Mead
– ‘Me’ and ‘I’
– Significant others
– Generalized Other
• Social Interaction
• Social Structures
– Master status
• Status Set
• Role strain
• Role conflict
• Role exit
• Erving Goffman
– Presentation of self
– Dramaturgical theory
– Impression management
– Primary groups
– Secondary groups
• Social Institutions Socialization:
• There is no set of complex, innate behaviours that accompanies any specific
human bodily need.
• Culturally appropriate responses are learned to accommodate needs (i.e. Food)
• There does not seem to be any human physical condition for which cultural
treatment is consistent across the globe.
We are not born social:
• We are not born fitting in to our particular culture
• We must learn how to fit into our society, our culture(s)
• We must learn the rules and the norms
• We are not born knowing the rules of society or the family we are born into
• The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a
selfidentity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in
• The process of us learning the social rules that are imbedded in us
Why is Socialization important?
• Essential for the individual’s survival and growth.
• Essential for the survival and stability of society.
• The kind of person we become is linked to the time and kind of society we live in.
• Cases in which parents or other caregivers failed to fulfill their responsibilities
provide insights into the importance of a positive socialization process and the
negative effects of social isolation.
• Real life examples:
• Socialization starts at birth
• Most intensive in early childhood
• Crucial part of becoming human
• Occurs from birth through adolescence
• Family is the most important agent
• It is both intentional and unintentional
Gender Socialization: • How an individual learns a gender identity and gendered ways of acting, thinking,
• We start learning at an early age what is accepted and expected of each gender
• How we dress kids
• Babies look alike but clothes colour help us to know how to react
Who socializes us?
• Five main agents of socialization:
4. Religious organizations
learn how to interact with family
learns the values of family
learns what it means to be apart of a family
learn specific ways of getting along with people and what is acceptable like sharing
learn manners and appropriate behavior
learn how to socialize with people your age
learns how to speak properly
learn how to be a functioning member of society
• Unwritten understandings about order, discipline, power, and other aspects of
• Reinforces existing social inequalities by educating students in various matters
and behaviours according to their class and social status.
• Get punished or in trouble for doing things wrong and you don’t want to do that
• Get praise for doing things good and for having good behaviour and connects to
how we then go out and act in the world
• Theres more to it than just learning how to be smart it’s learning all of the other
things that are apart of the hidden curriculum
• Enforces a particular value system
• Help children get away from their families
• Can be very influential over lifestyle choices, like dating and clothes choice • Dominant socialization DE terminator
• Can exert pressure on people peer pressure
• Most conform with the group to fit in get rewarded
• If you don’t fit in or conform you can get punished by getting bullied
• Can experience difficulty with parents because of peer groups
• Can be very influential
• The Media:
– 1. informs us about events.
– 2. introduces us to a wide variety of people.
– 3. provides a variety of viewpoints of the world around us.
– 4. make us aware of products and services.
– 5. entertains us by providing the opportunity to live vicariously.
Positives and Negatives of Mass Media
• Positives: can enhance children’s development by improving their language
abilities, concept formation skills, and reading skills and by encouraging pro
• Negatives: children and adolescents who spend a lot of time watching television
and playing video games often have lower grades in school, read fewer books,
exercise less, and are overweight.
• Adult socialization
• Occurs throughout the life cycle as people anticipate and adjust to new
• It is a reciprocal process
• The process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and
behaviours from those in one’s previous background.
• Voluntary: When we receive a new status of our own free will.
• Involuntary: When we receive a new status not of our own free will.
• A place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time
and come under control of the officials who run the institution.
• The sense of self (also referred to as selfconcept) is not present at birth; it arises
in the process of s