September 17/10 Lecture notes #2
-links of cultural beliefs, values and attitudes: a particular way of thinking/valuing
-cultural ideology: good at justifying its own existence, eg. Demanding marriage as
-patriarchal ideology: demands and explains; mens power over women
-ideology of Western exceptionalism has West superior to East
-ideology of American exceptionalism puts US democracy and capitalism as BEST
-power does not always require force/violence/threats
-power came from above (dominance) or from below (resistance)
-canʼt hold power in your hand
Max Weber: saw power as ability to control others, events, resources; make happen
what you want to happen
C.Wright Mills: saw power concerned with decisions about how people should live. eg.
Deciding what professions people will have, do we go to church or not? do we marry or
Michael Foucault: considered that ʻknowledgeʼ was a form of power. eg. those who
deﬁne an idea/situation have power over how others perceive it. Hitler convinced the
Naziʼs that Jews were the enemies
*even most basic day-to-day relationships; there is power involved. eg. bus driver,
professor, parents, etc.
Italian Marxist antonio Gramsci ʻHegemonyʼ - form of domination where the ruling class,
powerful are seen as naturally in power, ʻthe way things areʼ... hegemonic thinking (heʼs
the King because his father was the King).
-those in power create and maintain perception that their being in power, is seen as the
ʻnatural order of thingsʼ September 17/10 Lecture notes #2
-Hegemony acts in a way that makes society seem ʻnaturalʼ or ʻinevitableʼ - only way
society can work. Prevents our questioning, critically thinking about how society works.
EX: -recently capitalist hegemony,