Class Notes (837,435)
Canada (510,273)
Sociology (1,064)
SOCI 1002 (204)

SOCI 1002 w9.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

SOCI 1002
Kathleen Moss

SOCI 1002 E Foundations of Sociology Week 9: Gender and Sexual Orientation Gender • Sociologists use ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ to distinguish biological sex identity from learned gender roles. • A person is born male or female (or some combination, i.e. hermaphrodite) but becoming a man or woman is by social and cultural expectations of men’s and women’s behavior, attitudes and physical appearance. • Sex: born with male/female genitals and released male or female hormones to stimulate development of your reproductive system. • Gender: sense of being male/female and playing masculine/feminine roles that are appropriate by culture and society. • Transgendered: people break society’s gender norms by defying the rigid distinction between the genders. • Transsexuals: believe they were born with the “wrong” body. They identify want to live fully as members of the “opposite” sex. • Essentialism: School of thought that views gender differences as reflection of biological differences between women and men. o Ignores historical and cultural variability of gender. o Tends to generalize from the average, ignoring variations within gender groups. o Little or no evidence that directly supports essentialists’ major claims. o Ignores the role of power. • Social constructionism: Regards gender differences as constructed by social structure and culture. o Conflict and feminist perspectives reflect social constructionism. o Suggests natural features of life, such as gender, are sustained by social processes that vary both historically and culturally. o Also is reflected in symbolic interactionism, which focuses on way people attach meaning to things. • Gender Identity: one’s definition of oneself as a woman/man. o Self-concept o Shapes our expectations for ourselves o Abilities and Interests o How we interact with others • Gender socialization: learn the expectations according to their sex. o Parents: Physical contact, compliments, toys. o Peers: How children play with one another. o School: Teachers, books, class experience. o Mass Media: How women and men are portrayed in terms of occupations and roles, main characters, cultural ideal of womanhood and manhood. Male Aggressiveness • Intimate Partner Violence (6% of Canadian women in 2004 through victimization survey, down from 12% in 1993). • Sexual Assault (85% of sexual assault of women are by men they know). • Sexual Harassment. • Quid pro quo (when sexual threats or bribery are made a condition of employment decisions). • Hostile environment (involves sexual jokes, comments, and touching that interferes). Gender Institutions • Patriarchy: Refers to society in which men have power over women. • Gendered Institutions: when entire institutions are patterned by gender. o Stereotypical expectations o Interpersonal relationships o The division of labor along lines of gender o The images and symbols that support these divisions o The different placement of men and women in social, economic, and political hierarchies of institutions. • Earnings gap: between men and women is one of most important expressions of gender inequality today. Women earn less than men do at every level of education. o Overt Discrimination: Sexism – Discrimination on the basis of sex and gender. o Gender Socialization/Gender Segregation: refers to the distribution of men and women in different jobs in the labour force. o Second Shift: Even though many men are more involved in housework and childcare than has been true in the past, most of this work still falls on women. • Feminism: the movement for social, political, and economic equality of men and women. Public opinion polls confirm that when people are given this definition, 67 percent say they agree with feminism. • One indicator of progress of women is Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). • Is computed by United Nations and is based on the following: o Women’s share of seats in Parliament o Women’s share of administrative, managerial, professional, and technic
More Less

Related notes for SOCI 1002

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.