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SOCI 1002 w10.docx

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Carleton University
SOCI 1002
Kathleen Moss

SOCI 1002 E Foundations of Sociology Week 10: Groups and Organizations • Looking at how individuals are brought together within larger configurations of people. How does this occur, under what circumstances and with what effects? • Another way of putting it: who do we mean when we say ‘all of us’, ‘we demand’ and ‘we would agree’. Who is the we? Groups and Communities • Social groups: set of people who identify with one another and adhere to defined norms, roles or statues. Ex: family, sports, college. • Primary groups: norms, roles and statuses are agreed upon but not put in writing, social interaction leads to strong emotional ties, extends over long period and involves a wide range of activities. Ex: family (most important). • Secondary groups: larger and more impersonal, narrow social interaction over a shorter period of time that create weaker emotional ties. Ex: sociology class. Inclusion and Exclusion • In-group members: those who belong. • Out-group members: those who are excluded. • In-group members usually draw boundaries separating themselves from out-group members and keep them from crossing the line. Boundaries include: race, class, athletic, ability, physical attractiveness. Community (First major group, focus on interests) • Community: collection of people who are not clearly defined but who agree to something that other people reject and bestow an authority upon those beliefs. • Historically or contemporary • Most powerful allude to ‘common blood’, hereditary character, timeless link with a ‘land’ – types of people (Historically). • Communities of faith – communities that have been chosen, built around events and rituals – types of interests (Contemporary). Social Networks (Second major group, focus on exchange) • Social network: bounded set of individuals who are linked by exchange of material or emotional resources. • Members exchange resources more frequently with one another than with nonmembers, and also think of themselves as network members. • May be formal (defined in writing) but more often informal (defined only in practice). • Old forms of social networks: scientific influence, disease spreading, social ties. • New forms of social networks: advances in technology, communication, blogs, comments, music, pictures, status updates, trending topics, quick information, linking stories and videos, professional networking, MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn. Organizations (Third major group, focus on task-orientation) • Communities pursing defined tasks are otherwise called purpose groups or organizations. • Organizations have rules members must follow and individuals have different roles to play. • Formal organizations: large secondary groups organized to achieve their goals efficiently. Ex: business corporations, NGO, government. • Three types of formal organizations: o Utilitarian organizations: pays people for their efforts. o Normative organizations: pursue some goal they think is morally worthwhile (being involved and volunteering). o NGOs: non-profit organizations that operate independently that advocates for some social aim and are more normative in nature (wants change). o Lobby groups: much closer to political process, more utilitarian in nature. o Coercive organizations: involuntary membership, people are forced to join these organizations (prisons, boarding schools, psychiatric hospitals). Have security members and isolate them from society. • Organizations are specialized and their members are rec
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