SOCI 1002 E
Foundations of Sociology
Week 11: Social Movements
• Women Rights Movement (Right to Vote 1919), Civil Rights Movement (1960s), Gay
• Collective behaviour: voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large
of people and typically violates dominant group norms and values.
• Routine: collective actions tend to be nonviolent and follow established patterns of
bureaucratic social structures.
• Non-routine: collective action tends to be short-lived and sometimes violent (mobs, riot,
• Collective action can result in creation of one or more formal organizations to direct and
aims of its members.
• Institutionalization of protest signifies establishment of a social movement.
• For social movements to grow, members must make goals and consistent with interest,
• Social movements were typically small, localized and violent.
• Subsequent growth of the state led to changes in social movements, including:
o Growing in size (partly due to increased modes of communication, social
o Becoming less violent (size and organization often allowed movements to
become sufficiently powerful to get their way without frequently resorting to extreme
• Civil citizenship: 18 century struggle for right to free speech, freedom of religion and
before the law.
• Political citizenship: late 19 century/early 20 century struggle for right to vote and run
• Social citizenship: 20 century struggle for right to certain level of economic security and
participation in social life of country.
• Universal citizenship: 20 century struggle to recognize right of marginal groups to full
citizenship and rights of humanity as a whole.
• Social movement: organized activity that encourages or discourages social change.
• Social movements are about an issue, big or small, seeking to encourage or discourage
regards to this issue. The broader the issue the larger the group, the more defined issue
smaller the group.
• Social movements are one of the most important collective behaviour because they
lasting effects on the shape of our society.
• Subcultures and countercultures found in industrial and post-industrial societies
• Public issues are likely to give rise to social movements. Types of Social Movements
• Who is changed? Some movements target selected people, others try to change
• How much change? Limited change or radical transformation.
• Typology: classification of types (types of social movements), there are ideal types
(types that fit