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Lecture

Lecture 4: Education

5 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI 1002
Professor
Tamy Superle

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Description
Lecture 4: Education Social Institutions  Social institutions are the ordered relationships that grow out of the values, norms, statuses, roles, and groups of society  Things we build in a society in order to learn  Social institutions respond to the basic need areas of society, which include: o Family o Educational institutions o Economic institutions o Religious institutions o Political institutions  Socialized in many ways within educational institutions  People are in post-secondary education to get a good job, because their parents want hem to, etc. Importance of Education in Society  Education is considered critical to economic development  Knowledge or learning: society underscores this role of education  Individuals expect education to provide them with a wide range of competencies History of Mass Education  300 years ago: most people illiterate  100: majority never attended school  1950: only 10% of world’s countries had system of compulsory mass education  Today: more than half in developing countries are illiterate, while in Canada, education is a way of life Shift From Work to School  In agrarian societies, children began to contribute to the family economy young  Modern beliefs changed to think that young children shouldn’t work at all, but go to school  Children changed from being economic assets to being economic liabilities Trends in Schooling  School became a universal experience; school now equated with both childhood and adolescence  It extended later onto adolescence and even what used to pass for young adulthood  By 1960 the number of children not completing high school has dropped  Everywhere in the industrial world attendance at post-secondary schools exploded as well Expansions of Education  The educational period getting longer  More young people remaining in education  Early transitions is stratified o Educational attainment, social background, etc.  Early transition to the labour market relating to later disadvantage o Pay, occupational status, and even health  Many labour jobs don’t need a university degree  Some advantages to staying in school and getting an extended education, and disadvantages to entering the workforce early The Economy and Education  Canada has transitioned into a post-industrial society o Knowledge or information society  Service economy with professional or technical classes  Shift from blue collar jobs to white collar jobs  Manufacturing jobs outsourced Formal and Informal  Education is formal learning in institutions that provide learning activities  Informal learning: activities arranged and undertaken by individuals to acquire new knowledge Education in the Knowledge Society  Education is central to the new economy  The new economy relies on rapidly changing information technologies and scientific advancements  This demands that employees: o Have capacities to employ new technologies o Have a capacity for lifelong learning o Can apply their knowledge to new situations  Globalization and competition across national settings emphasize formal training and lifelong learning  It’s believed that education fosters: o Economic growth o Non-economic benefits (e.g. improved health, ability to use skills in all areas of life, intrinsic desire to learn)  Education is treated as a commodity Functions of Education  In complex societies, education takes over functions previously fulfilled by family, community, and religious organization  Education fulfills various functions: o Cultural innovation o Socialization o Social integration o Social placement Uniform Socialization  Creating systems of education that had sufficient resources to include all children was a huge social change  Replacing the family and religion with centralized and rationalized system create strong pressures toward uniformity and standardization Homogenizing and Sorting  Schools provide young people with the key capacities of communication, coordination, and economic productivity  Accomplish two main tasks: o Create homogeneity out of diversity by instructing all students in uniform curriculum o Sort students into paths that terminate in different social classes Education and Inequality  Education system’s promise of equal opportunity is unrealistic, because of: o Unequal access to schooling o Unequal ability to influence educational pol
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