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SOCI 2150
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SOCI 2150 Week 2 September 16, 2013 Social Realms (seeAlbert Hunter in Challenge of Social Control,Able pp. 230-242 Jackson, et al (2011), chapter 2) • Culture is the highest unit of analysis that we can use. Culture is flexible, fluid vague. • Second, change. Ex: Computer society. • Within society there is three divisions, they are called realms: 1. Private 2. Parochial 3. Public • They are defined by social intimacy and social disclosure • Social intimacy: it comes from close emotion, permanent bonds or ties and affliction. It requires a very strong sense of dependency. Social intimacy leads to disclosure. • Social disclosure: act of revealing information about yourself that anther or someone else would not otherwise know factually. Ie. While a can tell b about c all kinds of rumors that’s a different kind of social disclosure. Only c can tell b factually. Relationships require disclosure and not a whole lot of blurting stuff out. Otherwise the relationship goes flat. • Private realm: comprised of small family, kin, close friends. Tight reliable group that has social intimacy and social disclosure. Made up of infinite number of small groups. o “Sympathy group studies” how many people in your life whom death would directly affect your life. 12-15 people.As you get older they sympathy group ends to shrink. There are about 12 million sympathy groups in Canada. • Parochial realm: it is not well understood, just beginning to get some research on this. Gets kind of lost, transition zone. Ie. You sitting on the bus going from home to school. Some suggestion somewhere that church might be where individual meets society. Parochial meaning neither public nor private. Commonality, some sense of community. Secondary groups, acquaintances, neighbours et. Little social intimacy and almost no social disclosure. • Hunter is the first one to get into what these realms are, he only really talked about private vs. public. • Public realm: any open location, which is populated with strangers, may not all be strangers, notion of people you don’t know.Almost any public area.Areas ticketed for control (sidewalks, busses, parks, restaurants, and concerts) maintains group control to keep the number of people down. o Co presents, unknown or known categorically. Treat people categorically (males or females, role (barista), actions (service). o The notion of being a stranger o Adifferent kind of social intimacy, the intimacy is in the contact. There is contact, there is exchange, it’s mostly silent. • Hunting + Gathering bands o Private realm, maybe some parochial, no public realm, 10-24 members, permanent for lifetime. • Tribes, tribal units o Private, increasing parochial contact. Up to 160-ish members (Dunbar research); mesh realms. • Villages and towns o Start to get intersections of all the realms, public realm starts to appear. Up to a few 1000 members. Carmella Pagyalary?? Talked about gays and how since the beginning of village life, they had to sneak around a night in order to meet other gays to have sex with. We’re not allowed to be open about it  early evidence of how villages and towns began to have public realms. • City o Private, parochial, public realms. Co-exist areas definable by realm: home, church, streets. Largest groups, open ended in terms of size. • Canadian andAmerican Cities o Have much less private realm and more public realms. Europe has public realm everywhere and here it is much more private. o Mix private and public dramatically inAmerica. o Exampth: In Montreal there is more public realm than Ottawa. o 18 century London, women were restricted to the private realm, were not to come without a male chaperon. • Public realms are the focus of this course, it is anywhere you go and expect to be seen. • The purpose of public realm to create order, decency, politeness, not chaotic. Can’t be a whole lot of social intimacy, or verbal social disclosure. • When we’re in the private realm is affliction, our sympathy group. Social intimacy is order; no one really bothers you in the public realm. The decorum of intimacy (safety, secure passage, reciprocation). • Decorum means being “street smart” o Avoid trouble, move freely without incident. • Public realm: metaphorical • Consequence of decorum. Public realm = fluid, patterned action, orderly, momentary + meaningful meetings. • Public realm is loaded with social mysteries. • Walking the streets: o Michael Wolff: did research about pedestrian contact while walking on the street. o Choreographic metaphors: pedestrians akin to ballet dancers. o Performance- “step-a-slide” o David Seamon- without knowing about Michael Wolff did the same research and found the same findings. o William white- did the same. Sidewalk dance, place ballet. Normative, cooperative, exceptional scripted Performances=learned as socialized. Result=genuine contact, exchange, experience. o Outcome=fluid, predictable norms. • “incidental social contacts” o When you put your hand on door handles, or counters that haven’t been cleaned that much you have some sort of social contact with other people. Kinsey research: study done that took samples from mall door handles that you made contact with men and women who have masturbated before touching it. September 23, 2013 Norms Five basic Norms of Public RealmAction • Normative shells, actors (co-presents) fill in blanks 1. Co-operative Movement • Intentionally strive to avoid people. “Things”, angulations, sidestepping, little leap, accelerate, decelerate, pace, even back up • Goal: successful contact  avoidance • How: size up circumstances and options, act. • Socialization is successful decision if uneventful (successful 99.9% of time, else chaos) • Normative preference example: round, not through groups of people (through requires “special script”; extra effort) around objects, through groups of objects almost never go over. If can avoid. • Ex: study in Loeb building: pile of books/papers places on floor.At certain heights people stepped over. Increase height of pile. People detoured, took another route, another staircase 2. Civil Inattention • Mutual noticing among co-presents essential yet normative constraints on mutual noticing (not inattention; simply normative disinterest) • If normative, arouses special curiosity, intent (looking, glancing vs. leering) • Practiced in every public realm – on buses, in restaurants, bars, sidewalks, physician / dentist office, hospital waiting room • Forms of disinterested noticing expressionless – face blank, fleeting stare, non- invitational: ritual regard, avoids overload, polite, not social shut-down how to act. • Consequences: co-presence (same place / time) without co-mingling, awareness, but no engagement or direct contact • Decorum is maintained 3. Audience role prominence • Co-presents immersed in public realms situation, audience for activity are part of situation (other pedestrians, those at bus stop, sitting in park) • Evokes theatrical metaphors: plot, actors, ad-lib, stage entrance, exit • Hegel alive, working public realm; compromising, audience role prominence varies with… o Nature of dyadic relations )love, fight, stroll) if walking than driving in public realms, if intentional actors present (mimes, buskers), extent of commercial trade (prostitution) • Overall: create worldly “place ballet” people walk, stroll… • Readily reveals normative system 4. Restrained Helpfulness • Specifically targeted, clearly limited requests for innocuous, routine help 5. Civility toward diversity • Face-to-face contact mediates what might be seen as personally offensive, visible variations (beauty, skin colour, hair/dress style, demeanour, status, age, lifestyle) • Public realm value emphasis – decorum • Norm- predictable, decorous acts, re: others “Freedom from judgement” – typifies most contact in the public realm, major pleasure of being “out in public” (ie. Playboy Clubs in USA, -- southern states in 1960s – original clubs (NE States) accepted all races, then a purchase of Playboy Club “brand”, built in southern states, club members would visit each club; however, black people were not permitted in southern (newly developed) clubs – Playboy had to purchase “name” back) • Not necessarily friendliness: even-handedness, all treated +/same • Arises from indifference to diversity, not tolerance, appreciation; other distractions • Tend to note only “extreme incivility” (rudeness, rowdiness, hooliganism) • Ex: Chicago 1919 Riot Public Realm Norms Reflect Value Emphasis Value Emphasis creates the Norms Sub values 1. Privacy, disattention, avoidance • Norms: civil inattention, restrained helpfulness • Actions: 45 degree turn, blank stare, fleeting look 2. Defending space, defending distance • Norms: cooperative movement, civil inattention, restrained helpfulness, civility toward diversity • Actions: posture angulation, targeted acts, props used to defend space, distance, book bag, jacket, books, dishes 3. Inhibiting or facilitating safety, security • Norms: audience prominence, civil inattention, restrained helpfulness • Actions: intervene, speak up, 911, own safety, inaction easily presumed normative, larger audience (>7) less likely any response (ie kitty Genovese – rape/murder-bystanders) o Incomplete information + intensity overload “nearness norms” override physical distance, appropriate action unknown or withheld o Anomie facilitated murder of Genovese 4. Encouraging sociality: not only possible but frequent result • Norm: suspend inattention + restraint • Norm: emphasis civility toward diversity • Action: promote contact, co-mingling Forms: idle chatting on park bench, in a queue, at concert, may need help of others to complete an activity (getting out of parking spot into traffic) Facilitating variables: presence of “open person”, someone who seems approachable Open regions – coffee shop, club Triangulations –A+B focuses C external factors 5. Social perceptions • Norms: civil inattention, Civility to Diversity o norms promote egalitarian public realm o difference acknowledges “humanness” o normatively accept social claims of “others” o discounts differences between “us” and “them” “decorous posture” in public realm sufficient Civil attention promotes social imbalance Normative awareness = group affiliation Outsiders, insiders “them” vs. “us” assignment Affiliates versus intruders defined by actions Don’t know how to act, ie not us = threat Summary: Value emphasis + norms forms quasi-legal (minor violations tolerated, major sanctioned) roles: “us” “them” insider/outsider Altercating meeting action expectations = us • Inhibiting or facilitating safety, security • Norms:Audience Prominence, Civil Inattention, Restrained Helpfulness • Actions: intervene, speak up, 911, own safety, inaction easily presumed normative, larger audience (>7) less likely any response (ie kitty Genovese – rape/murder – bys
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