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Technology, Society, Environment Studies
TSES 3001
John Buschek

LECTURE 2 // September 10th, 2012 Four significant periods of societal change 1. Paleolithic: control of fire and started to make tools. Around 2.5 million years ago. One of the hominines (our ancestors) were able to do these sorts of things, producing change. 2. Neolithic: Agriculture revolution. Nomadic lifestyle changed to a settled lifestyle and along with that came new types of technology and structures that hadn’t existed 3. Industrial revolution(s): There are people who split these up into multiple revolutions but it occurred in the mid 1700’s to the 1900’s. Rural life changed to urban life and there were changes in energy supply. 4. Medical/technology revolution: Happening now (outcomes unknown). Wrangham: wrote paper on human adaption to control of fire. • For all animals the maximization of energy gain has direct positive consequences for fitness. • How to maximize energy gain? By your diet choice, patch choice, foraging time, methods of processing food (cooking – the external stomach), Perks of cooked food is the energy, the food is safer, more accessible, less time chewing your food, more appetizing. There are some instances where it’s good that we don’t cook food. For example, fruit is better to not be cooked because it spreads its seed by organisms eating and excreting the seeds. • Every animal species does well on raw food except for humans. Since the advent of cooked food, we have changed biologically. It’s harder to get energy from food unless it has been cooked. • Study in Germany showed that there was an inadequate energy gain for women on a 100% raw food diet (vegetarian or meat). About 50% of the women acquired amenorrhea (the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age). Human change has occurred: we have smaller intestines.
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