BIOL 266 Lecture Notes - Electrochemical Gradient, Actin, Critical Role

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
Concordia University
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 266
Lecture 1
Cells and Organelles
Cells Overview: All have this in similarity
Organic Components (Carbon Based)
Carbohydrates (sugars)
Lipids (Fats)
Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)
Protein
Inorganic Ions
(5) Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-
Water compromises 70% of total cell mass
All also have a plasma membrane
Prokaryotic Cells
- “Pro” meaning before
- “Karyon” meaning nucleus
- DNA is not segregated within a defined nucleus (DNA is just floating around)
o Reactions take place in cell are not enclosed in internal membranes
They have a single membrane-limited compartment
Cell Wall: Outer Membrane
Plasma Membrane: Inner Membrane
Cytoplasm: Has about 30 000 ribosomes (the site of protein synthesis), accounts for their
granular appearance
Nucleoid: Circular DNA molecules not surrounded by a membrane separating it from the
cytoplasm (which is the region lying outside the nucleoid)
Eukaryotic Cells
- “Eu” meaning truly/well
- “Karyon” meaning nucleus
- DNA is segregated within a defined nucleus
- Contains extensive internal membranes that enclose specific compartments (the organelles)
and separate them from the rest of the cell (the cytosol). The organelles are isolated (these
organelles may not be found in a prokaryotic cell)
In common between Animal and Plant Cells
Mitochondrion: Produces energy
Plasma Membrane: The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum: A membrane network within the cytoplasm of cells involved in the
synthesis, modification, and transport of cellular materials
Cytosol: The fluid component of cytoplasm, excluding organelles and the insoluble, usually
suspended, cytoplasmic components
Golgi Apparatus: A network of stacked membranous vesicles present in most living cells that
functions in the formation of secretions within the cell
Filamentous Cytoskeleton: cellular structure within the cytoplasm in every cell that helps it to
keep its structure, protect the cell and allows cellular motion, it also plays a role in
intracellular transport and cellular division.
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Nucleus: A large, membrane-bound, usually spherical protoplasmic structure within a living
cell, containing the cell's hereditary material and controlling its metabolism, growth, and
reproduction
Lysosomes: A membrane-bound organelle in the cytoplasm of most cells containing various
hydrolytic enzymes that function in intracellular digestion.
Peroxisomes: A cell organelle containing enzymes, such as catalase and oxidase, that catalyze
the production and breakdown of hydrogen peroxide.
Animal Cells
Centriole: either of two rod like bodies in most animal cells that form the poles of the spindle
during mitosis
Cell Wall (Only for Yeast and Fungi which are single-celled/unicellular eukaryotes)
Plant Cells are surrounded by 2 membranes
Cell Wall: The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and fungi
but characteristically absent from animal cells.
Chloroplast: Site of photosynthesis
Vacuole: Water is filled within this organelle
Cells are the smallest units exhibiting the characteristics of life since they can reproduce themselves by their own effects
o Organelles cant reproduce by their own effort, outside of their host cells
o Viruses not able to reproduce by themselves, they use the reproductive machinery
of cells that they invade
- Cells it the fundamental unit of life, underlying building blocks from which all organisms are
constructed
- Cell Biology: investigates how cells grow, divide, operate, communicate, control their
activities and die
o Death of a cell can save other cells so it is not a bad thing
- Cells are small: typically 5 20um in diameter
o Only found prior to invention of the light microscope in 17th century by Robert
Hooke (1665)
Hooke called the pores from a thin slice of cork cells because they reminded
him of the cells inhabited by monks living in a monastery
Relative Sizes of Cells and Cell Components
Hydrogen Atom
Water Molecule
DNA Molecule
Myoglobin
Lipid Bilayer
Actin Filament
Ribosome
HIV
Cilium
Bacterium
Mitochondrion
Chloroplast
Lymphocyte
Epithelial Cell
Paramecium
Frog Egg
Note: 1m = 106um = 109 nm = 1010 A
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Document Summary

Inorganic ions (5) na+, k+, mg2+, ca2+, cl- Dna is not segregated within a defined nucleus (dna is just floating around: reactions take place in cell are not enclosed in internal membranes. Cytoplasm: has about 30 000 ribosomes (the site of protein synthesis), accounts for their granular appearance. Nucleoid: circular dna molecules not surrounded by a membrane separating it from the cytoplasm (which is the region lying outside the nucleoid) Dna is segregated within a defined nucleus. Contains extensive internal membranes that enclose specific compartments (the organelles) and separate them from the rest of the cell (the cytosol). The organelles are isolated (these organelles may not be found in a prokaryotic cell) Plasma membrane: the semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell. Endoplasmic reticulum: a membrane network within the cytoplasm of cells involved in the synthesis, modification, and transport of cellular materials. Cytosol: the fluid component of cytoplasm, excluding organelles and the insoluble, usually suspended, cytoplasmic components.

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