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Lecture 6

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 225
Professor
Ian Ferguson
Semester
Winter

Description
Many elements are essential in relative quantity; they are usually called "bulk minerals". Some are structural, but many play a role as electrolytes. Elements with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) greater than 200 mg/day are, in alphabetical order (with informal or folk- medicine perspectives in parentheses): Calcium, a common electrolyte, but also needed structurally structural (for muscle and digestive system health, bones, some forms neutralizes acidity, may help clear toxins, and provide signaling ions for nerve and membrane functions) Chlorine as chloride ions; very common electrolyte; see sodium, below Magnesium, required for processing ATP and related reactions (builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, increases flexibility, increases alkalinity) Phosphorus, required component of bones; essential for energy processing [4] Potassium, a very common electrolyte (heart and nerve health) Sodium, a very common electrolyte; not generally found in dietary supplements, despite being needed in large quantities, because the ion is very common in food: typically as sodium chloride, or common salt Sulfur for three essential amino acids and therefore many proteins (skin, hair, nails, liver, and pancreas) Many elements are required in trace amounts, usually because they play a catalytic role in enzymes. [5]Some trace mineral elements (RDA < 200 mg/day) are, in alphabetical order: Cobalt required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12 family of coenzymes Copper required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase Chromium required for sugar metabolism Iodine required not only for the biosynthesis of thyroxin, but probably, for other important organs as breast, stomach, salivary glands, thymus etc. (see Extrathyroidal iodine); for this reason iodine is needed in larger quantities than others in this list, and sometimes classified with the macrominerals Iron required for many enzymes, and for hemoglobin and some other proteins Manganese (processing of oxygen) Molybdenum required for xanthine oxidase and related oxidases Nickel present in urease Selenium required for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins) Vanadium (Speculative: there is no established RDA for vanadium. No specific biochemical function has been identified for it in humans, although vanadium is required for some lower organisms.) Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, carbonic anhydrase As with the minerals discussed above, some vitamins are recognized as essential nutrients, necessary in the diet for good health. (Vitamin D is the exception: i
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