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Chapter 42-The Circulatory System.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 225
Professor
Ian Ferguson
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 42: Circulatory System Porifera: all parts of the body are close to the environment Cnideria: Gastro vascular cavity sort of acts as a circulatory system. In a Medusa water is sucked into the gastro vascular cavity and flowed into  canals. The cells that line the canals have cilia, which push the water in   different directions. Rotifera, Byozoa, Nematoda: fluid flows through the body cavity. Circulatory systems Hemolymph is the name for the interstitial fluid that is being pumped through the system.  This happens mostly in open circulatory system When the fluid is specialized and stays inside the pumping system (blood) it is called a  closed circulatory system. (Chordata, Annelida, Phoronida) Circulatory system plumbing: Heart: pumps blood Blood vessels: carry blood Heart: • Atrium: receives blood • Ventricle: pumps blood out of the heart Blood vessels: • Artery: carries blood away from the heart • Arteriole: smaller arteries that deliver blood into capillaries • Vein: carries blood towards the heart • Venules: carries blood from capillaries to veins. • Portal: carries blood from capillaries to capillaries • Capillary: Allows gas exchange Divisions of Chordates (crades): Craniate, Vertebrates, Gnathostomes, Osteichthyans, Lobefin, Tetrapod, Amniotes,  Reptiles (grade). Chordata circulatory system: FISH Pump deoxygenated blood to the gills where the gills fill it with oxygen and then pumps  it throughout the body and back to the heart. Blood flow: Right ventricle: pumps deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary artery Pulmonary artery: Pumps deoxygenated blood away from the heart to the lungs. Lungs:  Fill   blood   with  oxygen and then sends it  through   into   the   left  ventricle Left   ventricle:  pumps  oxygenated blood through  the aorta through the rest  of the body Posterior   and   superior  vena   cava:  pump   the  deoxygenated blood back  into the right atrium and  then   into   the   right  ventricle. Semilunar   valve:  prevents the blood from  flowing   back   into   the  ventricle from the major  arteries. Atrioventricular   valve:  prevent   the   blood   from  flowing from the ventricle to the atria SA node (Pacemaker): initiates the contraction by sending a wave of signals through the  heart. (Across the atria) AV node: Takes its time to send the next impulse into the ventricles for them to contract. When blood is flowing through the capillaries, the interstitial fluid wants to send water in  because its solute concentration is lower than blood. Becau
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