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Lecture 1

CIVI 231 Lecture 1: Lecture 1
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5 Pages
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Fall 2016

Department
Civil Engin.
Course Code
CIVI 231
Professor
Samuel L I
Lecture
1

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Email: [email protected]encs.concordia.ca
Office hours: Tuesday 14:00-16:00 (EV 6.166)
Midterm: October 17, 2017
Quizzes will have multiple choice questions
Exams will have short/long answers
There is a course project
Chapter 1: An introduction to Geology and Plate Tectonics
Definition:
Natural hazards
Resources
World population growth
Environmental issues
Relationship between people & and natural environment
17th century, Earth's landscapes were formed by sudden disasters
Catastrophism:
Proposed in the 18th century by James Hutton
States that the processes we observe on our planet today have been shaping our
planet throughout time
"The present is the key to the past"
Uniformitarianism:
Historical notes:
Science of geology
Before the discovery radioactivity, it was difficult to determine the age of Earth
Our current age-dating techniques are being refined regularly
Earth is 4.6 billion years old
Dinosaurs were extinct 66 million years ago
Events are placed in their proper sequence or order without knowing their age in
years
Finding the age of something without counting in sequence, instead find its
relative position in time with respect to another object
Example:
Relative dating:
Younger rocks layers are deposited over older rock layers
Law of Superposition
Fossil organisms success each other in a determinable order
Principle of Fossil Succession:
Relative dating & geologic time scale:
Magnitude of geological time
Geological Time
Lecture 1
Monday, September 12, 2016
17:52
CIVI 231 Page 1
Do not need memorize the table, just understand it
Large explosion sent all matter in the universe flying outward at incredible speeds
Most popular theory
Big bang created various materials which led to creation of planets, moons, chemicals,
etc
Big Bang Theory
Bodies in solar system evolved from a rotating cloud called solar nebula
A bunch of particles were held tightly together by gravity, which caused particles to
collide which to led to nuclear fusion creating our sun, and that evolution led to
creation of the solar system.
Nebular hypothesis
Formed from a contracting, slowly spiraling nebula
Protosun and protoplanets
Origin of planet earth
Chemical segregation early in the formation of Earth by gravity
Inner layer
Dense, iron-rich
Core
Largest later between core and crust
Composed of iron, magnesium and oxygen-seeking elements
Mantle
Outer layer
Solid, thin
Crust
3 Layers
Formation of Earth's Layered Structure
Early Evolution of Earth
Alfred Wegener (1915) proposed continents moved about the face of the planet
Continental Drift
Current understanding of how continents move
Based on continental drift
Based on understanding on how plates move
Plate Tectonics
Fit together like a jigsaw puzzle
Fit of continents:
Same fossils found on separated continents
One specie was in both areas, therefore they were on the same continent
Fossil evidence
Rock on one continent match those on another continent
Rock type and Structural Similarities
Evidence for ancient glacial ice explained by a super continent
Paleo-climatic evidence
Evidence across the Atlantic Ocean of continental drift
Plate Tectonics: A Geologic Paradigm
Lithosphere is broken0up into pieces
Plates:
There are 7 major plates
Lithospheric plates move relative to one another at very slow rates
Plate Tectonics
Planet of Shifting Plates
CIVI 231 Page 2

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Description
Lecture 1 Monday, September 12, 2016 17:52 Email: [email protected] Office hours: Tuesday 14:00-16:00(EV 6.166) TA email: [email protected] Midterm:October 17, 2017 Quizzes will have multiple choice questions Exams will have short/long answers There is a course project Chapter 1: An introduction to Geology and Plate Tectonics Science of geology • Definition: ○ Physical geology: studies Earth materials, seeks to understand processes that operate on and beneath its surface. ○ Historical geology: seeks to understand the origin of Earth and its developmentthrough time (not our concern) • Relationship between people & and natural environment ○ Natural hazards ○ Resources ○ World population growth ○ Environmentalissues • Historical notes: ○ Catastrophism:  17th century, Earth's landscapes were formed by sudden disasters ○ Uniformitarianism:  Proposedin the 18th century by James Hutton  States that the processes we observeon our planet today have been shaping our planet throughout time  "The present is the key to the past" Geological Time • Before the discovery radioactivity,it was difficult to determine the age of Earth • Our current age-dating techniques are being refined regularly • Earth is 4.6 billion years old • Dinosaurs were extinct 66 million years ago • Relative dating & geologic time scale: ○ Relative dating:  Events are placed in their proper sequence or order without knowing their age in years  Example: □ Finding the age of something without counting in sequence, instead find its relative position in time with respect to another object ○ Law of Superposition  Younger rocks layers are deposited over older rock layers ○ Principle of Fossil Succession:  Fossil organisms success each other in a determinable order • Magnitude of geological time ○ Because things happen very gradually there is a category of events (Eon, Era, Period, Relative time span of eras, etc) Relative time span of eras, etc)  Do not need memorizethe table, just understand it Early Evolution of Earth • Origin of planet earth ○ Big Bang Theory  Large explosion sent all matterin the universe flying outward at incredible speeds  Most popular theory  Big bang created various materials which led to creation of planets, moons,chemicals, etc ○ Nebular hypothesis  Bodies in solar system evolvedfrom a rotating cloud called solar nebula  A bunch of particles were held tightly together by gravity, which caused particles to collide which to led to nuclear fusion creating our sun, and that evolutionled to creation of the solar system. ○ Protosun and protoplanets  Formed from a contracting, slowly spiraling nebula • Formationof Earth's Layered Structure ○ Chemical segregation early in the formation of Earth by gravity ○ 3 Layers  Core □ Inner layer □ Dense, iron-rich  Mantle □ Largest later between core and crust □ Composedof iron, magnesium and oxygen-seeking elements  Crust □ Outer layer □ Solid, thin Plate Tectonics: A Geologic Paradigm • Continental Drift ○ Alfred Wegener (1915)proposed continents movedabout the face of the planet ○ Ground is moving, due to the move, the plates caused reaction, which induced activities (tsunami, earthquake, etc.) • Plate Tectonics ○ Current understanding of how continents move ○ Based on continental drift ○ Based on understanding on how plates move • Evidence across the Atlantic Ocean of continental drift ○ Fit of continents:  Fit together like a jigsaw puzzle ○ Fossil evidence  Same fossils found on separated continents  One specie was in both areas, thereforethey were on the same continent ○ Rock type and Structural Similarities  Rock on one continent match those on another continent ○ Paleo-climaticevidence  Evidence for ancient glacial ice explained by a super continent Planet of Shifting Plates • Plate Tectonics ○ Plates:  Lithosphere is broken0up into pieces ○ There are 7 major plates Lithospheric plates moverelative to one another at very slow rates ○ Lithospheric
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